The cause of health disparities—past and present—are too layered and old to solve easily. According to Penner, they’ve existed since Reconstruction, right when black health was no longer a matter of profit. “The elimination of health disparities requires multilevel solutions across almost all of the institutions in the United States,” Assari says. “In a short time, like four months in response to Covid-19, it is almost impossible to prevent a major racial gap. It is extremely sad. ” Many, including National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases director Anthony Fauci, have said there is little that can be done now about the “unacceptable” disparity apart from providing all patients with the best standard of care.