UK astronaut Tim Peake 'thrilled' at space opportunity
By Jonathan Amos
Tim Peake says he is thrilled to have been given the opportunity to go to the International Space Station (ISS).
The UK astronaut told BBC News it was a "huge privilege" and the culmination of everything he had worked for during his aviation career.
A former major and helicopter pilot in the British Army Air Corps, Tim Peake will join Expedition 46 to the ISS, launching in November or December 2015.
His stay at the 415km-high outpost is expected to last just over five months.
Tasks once in orbit will include helping to maintain the 27,000km/h platform and carrying out science experiments in Esa's Columbus laboratory module, which is attached to the front of the 400-tonne complex.
It is understood there is a strong chance he will also get to perform a spacewalk.
"I am delighted to have been assigned to a long-duration mission to the International Space Station," he told me.
"On a personal level, this feels like the high point of an incredibly rewarding career in aviation.
"It is a huge privilege to be able to fly to space. I look forward to the challenges ahead and I shall be doing my utmost to maximise this opportunity for European science, industry and education to benefit from this mission."
Forty-one-year-old Mr Peake hails from Chichester, and is so far the only Briton ever to be accepted into the European Astronaut Corps.
In some senses, he will become the "first official British astronaut", because all previous UK-born individuals who have gone into orbit have done so either through the US space agency (Nasa) as American citizens or on independent ventures organised with the assistance of the Russian space agency.
Tim Peake getting some advice from Michael Foale - the most experienced "UK spaceman"
As an Esa astronaut, "Major Tim" will be flying under the union flag on a UK-government-sponsored programme.
Major Tim's assignment is made as British space activity is experiencing a big renaissance.
The space industry in the UK is growing fast, employing tens of thousands of workers and contributing some ?9bn in value to the national economy.
The government has also raised substantially its subscription to Esa, and the agency has responded by opening its first technical base in the country.
Ecsat (European Centre for Space Applications and Telecoms) is sited on the Harwell science campus in Oxfordshire.
Traditionally, British governments have steadfastly refused to get involved in human spaceflight, and even the current administration puts only a minimal amount of money into this specific Esa programme.
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Science editor, BBC News
Science Minister David Willetts regards the ?16m to secure Tim Peake's ticket as money well spent.
While Nasa wraps its astronauts in the rhetoric of fabled explorers - lots of "celestial destiny" and "bold endeavour" - the British take is far more mundane: the press release announcing Tim Peake's mission is mainly about British industry and jobs.
So when he dons his spacesuit, and checks the union flag's in place, there'll be a lot riding on his multi-layered shoulders.
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But Dr Thomas Reiter, the director of human spaceflight at Esa, said he hoped the benefits that would accrue to Britain through Major Tim's flight might encourage deeper participation in the future.
He told BBC News: "I am indeed hoping... that the returns in terms of science, technology, applications and the outreach aspect - that this will all help the decision at the next ministerial council, and the follow-ons, to hopefully increase the UK's participation in human spaceflight in the ISS exploitation programme, and of course in the perspective of exploration beyond low-Earth orbit."
There is sure to be huge interest in Major Tim's adventure.
The recently returned ISS commander, Canadian Chris Hadfield, attracted a big following for his tweets, videos and songs from the platform. His rendition of David Bowie's A Space Oddity has become a YouTube hit.
Major Tim will be endeavouring to achieve something of the same impact.
The UK astronaut tells BBC science editor David Shukman that it is a "true privilege" to be assigned to a long-duration mission
"I do strum the guitar badly," he admits, but as for singing, the Briton says he is not in the same class as Chris Hadfield. "Under Pressure", a 1981 release with Freddie Mercury and Queen, is Major Tim's favourite Bowie number. "Quite apt, I suppose!"
Scientists are already working on ideas for experiments that the UK spaceman could do on the ISS.
Britain recently joined Esa's European Life and Physical Sciences in Space (Elips) programme, which organises much of the research conducted on the orbiting platform.
Studying systems and processes in its microgravity environment gives researchers a unique perspective. In an Earth laboratory, gravity pulls hard on everything; but if the notions of "up" and "down" can be removed - as is the case on the freefalling station - then some unusual things start to happen.
Gases and liquids that are heated do not rise and sink as they would normally, and suspended particles do not settle out into neat layers of different sizes.
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International Space Station
The International Space Station (ISS) is larger than a football pitch
The first module called Zarya was launched into orbit in 1998
It took 13 years to complete at a cost of around $100bn
There is a permanent crew of six astronauts onboard who carry out space environment research
Watch NASA astronauts describe the unique view from the ISS
By removing the "mask" of gravity, it then becomes possible to study the effects of other forces more easily.
Philip Carvil, from the UK Space Biomedical Association, said: "During his mission, Tim will likely be performing a host of experiments that can range from human physiology to material science.
"With around 700 experiments performed on the ISS thus far, the opportunity for research development continually inspires hundreds of institutions around the world to create experiments to better understand the Universe around us and improve the quality of life on Earth.
"At this very moment, several groups are already testing their projects on the ground and/or simulated microgravity for integration in future missions."
Helen Sharman was the first Briton to go into space in 1991 on Project Juno, a cooperative project between a number of UK companies and the Soviet government. She spent a week at the Mir space station.
The most experienced British-born astronaut is Nasa's Michael Foale. He has accumulated 374 days in orbit, completing long-duration missions to both the ISS and Mir.