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EDUCATION / How To Write Chapter Four Of Your Final Year Project
« on: July 07, 2020, 07:17:53 AM »
How To Write Chapter Four Of Your Final Year Project Effectively
In writing the final year project, Students at times find it difficult to document their findings properly.  In every research project, chapter four is the heart of the research work and sometimes, supervisors do not even start the reading of the research work from chapter one, but they jump to chapter four because that is the chapter that tells the reader all that was done, the instrument you used, how you analyzed your data and finally your findings.
The purpose of this chapter four in your final year project is to summarize the collected data and the statistical treatment, and or mechanics of analysis.  The first paragraph should briefly restate the problem, taken from Chapter one, and explain the object of each experiment, question, or objective, point out salient results, and present those results by the table, figure, or other forms of summarized data.  Select tables and figures carefully.  Some studies are easier to defend if all the raw data is in this chapter; some are better if the bulk of the raw data is in an appendix.

Also, read this article - Step By Step Guide To Write A Good Research Proposal

Chapter four of a Qualitative Research work carries different titles such as ‘Analysis of Data’, ‘Results of Study’, ‘Analysis and Results’ and so forth but the keywords are ‘analysis’ and ‘results’ which implies that you have ‘analyzed’ the raw data and presenting the ‘results’ or what you discovered in the fieldwork carried out, in this Chapter.
Studies have shown that a greater number of students always find it difficult to document their findings correctly.  You may have done a good job writing Chapter one (Introduction), Chapter two (Literature Review), and Chapter three (Methodology) with such clarity and end up making a mess of Chapter four (Findings and Data Analysis).
Since chapter four is the heart of your research work and if your supervisor does not start the reading of your work from chapter one, but jump to chapter four which you have spent so much time collecting and analyzing data but do a poor job of reporting the results of the findings.

Also, read this article - Step By Step Instructions To Design And Develop A Questionnaire For A Final Year Project

Alternatively, after collecting all the data and your presentation of your results lack organization and clarity, your reader would struggle by trying to figure out what you have written, and by this, you’ve just wasted your precious time and possibly the cost of compiling the chapter.
Chapter four should ‘stand-alone:

 what does this mean?

This means that you could ask a friend to read it and he or she would understand what you discovered in your study without having to read Chapters one to three.
For you to achieve this, your chapter four should be aligned to the purpose of the study, the research questions, why the study was important, how it connects to the underlying theories, literature review, and reflective of the conceptual framework.  Chapter four is the culmination of your study and represents your best thinking and how you answered the research question you had formulated and stated in chapter one of the research project.

Also, Read This Article – How To Write Effective Research Project Abstract
A good researcher should begin this chapter with two or three introductory paragraphs.  A transition from chapter three is very important too.  The researcher should also provide a very brief review of the overall research design.  It is not necessary to list all of the secondary questions and hypotheses at the beginning of the chapter, but the introductory section of the chapter should focus the reader’s attention on the primary research question and hypothesis.
Don’t border detailing everything, the bulk of the chapter will consist of the presentation of findings for the secondary questions and hypotheses set forth in Chapter three.
In quantitative research, the results usually begin with a description of the sample, For example, the sample size, description of participants who were excluded, and why the handling of missing data.
Also, the descriptive statistics.   For example, frequencies and percentages for categorical variables, means, standard deviations, and ranges for continuously measured variables are presented, and normality of continuously measured variables is usually presented.
Address each hypothesis in turn, presenting a description of the analysis that was computed to address each hypothesis and the results of that analysis.  State whether the null hypothesis was rejected.

Also, Read This Article - Trending Project Topics For Final Year Students At A Glance
Do not repeat in tedious prose that it is obvious for a knowledgeable peer to see at a glance.   The dissertation advisor usually has an opinion about the level of detail needed in this chapter.   Table titles and figure captions should be understandable without reading the chapter text.
Note all relevant results, even those that were contrary to the alternative hypotheses, or those that tend to distract from clear determinations.
Chapter Four Table Of Content
1.    Introduction to the Chapter.
2.    A transition from chapter three.  (Very important)
3.    Provide a brief overview of the research project: as I stated earlier, chapter four should be able to stand alone, this means it should be presented in such a way that one can read it and understand everything about your study, this means that a BRIEF overview of the research project is very important in this chapter.
4.    Describe the purpose of the chapter.
5.    Explain the organization of the chapter.
6.    Data Analyses and Presentation of the Findings: this is the heart of this chapter, the presentation of the findings should be very concise and clear, make sure that you present it in such a way that even a layman can understand it.
7.     State null hypothesis.
8.    Present the statistical results in a table.
9.    Draw statistical conclusions for accepted and rejected hypotheses.
10.    Draw a preliminary research conclusion
11.    Conclusion and Transition to Chapter Five

Also, Read This Article - How To Develop Effective And Unique Project Topics


Most at times seeing or hearing the word education, many people always think of places like schools, colleges, polytechnics, and universities.  And when hearing the word, many people often confuse it with schooling or at times they might also look to particular jobs like teaching or tutoring and the problem with this is that education as discipline entails much more than schooling or particular jobs like teaching or tutoring.
Apparently, education as a field of study is analyzed on different characteristics of a discipline.  The term education has a multifaceted meaning.  Therefore, before analyzing the nature of education as a discipline it is necessary to first analyze the meaning of the term ‘education
’, before going into the discipline meaning in education.

What is Education?

The term “Education” in English, ‖ was taken or derived from the Latin words Educare, Educere, and Educatum.  And the term “Educatum”‖ denotes the act of teaching,  it also means to train or mold.  The terms Educare and Educere mean to bring up, to lead out, or to draw out propulsion, or impetus from inward to outward.   These all terms mainly indicate the development of the latent faculties of the child.
The term education stands for both the study of the field and for the formal enterprise (or system) that is being studied.  To understand this dual meaning very well, consider these two definitions of education.
 The first is a standard definition from the American Heritage Dictionary:
1.    The act or process of educating or being educated.
2.     The knowledge or skill obtained or developed by a learning process.
3.    A Program of instruction of a specified kind or level.
4.    The field of study that is concerned with the pedagogy of teaching and learning.
5.    An instructive or enlightening experience.
The second is from the essay on “Education”, by William Frankena in the Dictionary of the History of Ideas: 
1.    As the activity of one doing the educating, the act or process of educating or teaching engaged in by the educator.
2.    The process or experience of being educated or learning that goes on in the one being educated.
3.    As the result produced and in the one being educated by the double process of educating and being educated.
4.    As a discipline or study of education.
From these definitions, it is clear that the term “Education” is used in three senses: Knowledge, Subject, and Process.
In the first sense, all formal and informal knowledge gained by an individual during his or her lifetime is termed as his or her education
.  When a person achieves a degree up to a certain level, we do not call it education.  For example, if a person has secured a Master's Degree then we utilize education in a much-narrowed sense and call or say that the person has achieved education up to Masters Level.
In the second sense, education is used in a sense of discipline.  For example, if a person had taken education as a paper or as a discipline during his study in any institution then we utilize education as a subject.  As a field of study education is a contemplative search for theory and science of the process of educating.  In the third sense, education is used as a process.  In fact when we talk of education, we talk in the third sense i. e.  education
 as a process.  As an enterprise it contains various systems of education and, therefore, primarily an activity.  However, in this study, we are dealing only with second meaning of education i. e.  education as a subject or discipline that is taught at various levels.  The subject relates itself to the preparation of educators and the study of teaching-learning conditions.  Most precisely the discipline of Education can be defined as the study of the process of educating.  It studies various factors, methods, and elements involved in the process of educating.  In this view, educators look to act with people rather on them.  Their task is to educe (related to the Greek notion of educere), to bring out or develop potential.  Such education
•   Deliberate and hopeful.  It is learning we set out to make happen in the belief that people can ‘be more’;
•   Informed, respectful, and wise.  A process of inviting truth and possibility.
•   Grounded in a desire that at all may flourish and share in life.  It is a cooperative and inclusive activity that looks to help people to live their lives as well as they can.
It also studies various principles and ideas govern this process.  A major purpose of education as a field of study is to help to understand and improve the enterprise.  As an activity, the education enterprise is highly complex.  Its immediate purpose relates to the intellectual, moral, social, and physical development of our students, and its functions, socially and civically, to maintain and improve a democratic way of life, such complexity, with competing goals and values, requires strong analytical thinking and understanding so that the system is operated in a thoughtful and effective way.  Therefore the discipline of education has been designed to prepare scholars who are responsible for both the field of study of education
 and the educational

Education in Primitive and Early Civilized societies

The term education can be applied to primitive societies only in the sense of enculturation, which is the process of cultural transmission.  A primitive person, whose culture is the totality of his universe, has a generally fixed sense of cultural progression and timelessness.  The model of life is relatively static and absolute, and it is transmitted from one generation to another with little deviation.  As for prehistoric education
, it can only be inferred from educational practices in surviving primitive societies.
The purpose of primitive education was to guide their children to become good members of their tribe or band.  There is a marked emphasis upon training for citizenship because primitive people are highly concerned with the growth of individuals as tribal members and the thorough comprehension of their way of life during the passage from prepuberty to postpuberty.
Because of the variety in the countless thousands of primitive societies, it is difficult to describe any standard and uniform characteristics of prepuberty education.  Nevertheless, certain things are practiced commonly within cultures.  Children actually participate in the social processes of adult activities, and their participatory learning is based upon what the American anthropologist Margaret Mead called empathy, identification, and imitation.  Primitive children, before reaching puberty, learn by doing and observing basic technical practices.  Their teachers are not strangers but rather their immediate community.

In contrast to the spontaneous and rather unregulated imitations in prepuberty education, postpuberty education in some cultures is strictly standardized and regulated.  The teaching personnel may consist of fully initiated men, often unknown to the initiate though they are his relatives in other clans.  The initiation may begin with the initiate being abruptly separated from his familial group and sent to a secluded camp where he joins other initiates.  The purpose of this separation is to deflect the initiate’s deep attachment away from his family and to establish his emotional and social anchorage in the wider web of his culture.
The initiation “curriculum” does not usually include practical subjects.  Instead, it consists of a whole set of cultural values, tribal religion, myths, philosophy, history, rituals, and other knowledge.  Primitive people in some cultures regard the body of knowledge constituting the initiation curriculum as most essential to their tribal membership.  Within this essential curriculum, religious instruction takes the most prominent place.

Education in the earliest civilizations

The history of civilization started in the Middle East about 3000 BCE, whereas the North China civilization began about a millennium and a half later.  The Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations flourished almost simultaneously during the first civilizational phase (3000–1500 BCE).  Although these civilizations differed, they shared monumental literary achievements.  The need for the perpetuation of these highly developed civilizations made writing and formal education

Education as a Discipline
Education is a relatively new discipline that combines aspects of Psychology, history, philosophy, sociology, and some practical studies.  Its domain is the whole complex of the process of educating.  The discipline of education is nowadays a compulsory subject used for educating teacher educators.  Education is, of course, also a field of research that aims to understand the process of education.  The main problems and questions education deals with what content should be taught to pupils and students (the question of the curriculum)? How should the content be taught (the question of teaching method)? What other educational
 goals shall be pursued in addition to teaching knowledge and skills (the question of values)? In other words, education has to answer the questions of truth, learning, and morals.  It has to reflect on the higher goals of education beyond passing on random knowledge and skills.  The study of education would be the reflexive effort of looking at the reality of education
 and trying to understand how it is practiced. 
This is a serious question that whether education can be called a discipline, and there are three schools of thought on the subject.  The first suggests that since education borrows from and combines with other, more traditional, disciplines and often focuses on practice, it should not be called a discipline but a field of study or a second-level discipline.  Using the same rationale (that many areas within education bring together a traditional discipline within an educational
 frame), the second school of thought calls education an inter-discipline.  In addition, education has its own set of problems, questions, knowledge bases, and approaches to inquiry; the third school of thought pushes for accepting education as a discipline.
One reason for the lack of consensus around the use of 'discipline‘ for education is that as a field of study, education
 may be seen as one of a set of academic program anomalies in which enterprise itself is primarily an activity.  Within universities, this includes schools and colleges that are considered professional schools: engineering, nursing, medicine, law, social work.  In the words of Klein 1990,8 We could say that education, as a professional school, is a second-level discipline in that it focuses on a unique activity-education- by borrowing, considerably, from many traditional disciplines.
Looking specifically at areas in education that bring together a traditional discipline and education, we could use the term inter-discipline to describe education.  Considering education as an inter-discipline suggests that the work of scholarship in education should focus on bringing together the disciplines as a means of solving problems and answering questions that cannot be satisfactorily addressed using single methods or approaches. 
At this point, it would be well worth examining education as a discipline.  Not only does education have its own set of problems, questions and knowledge bases, and approaches to the inquiry but also that which is borrowed from other disciplines often becomes transformed within the study of education.  To evaluate education on different criteria of a discipline, objectives of studying education
 as a discipline should be considered first because objectives of study delimit and decide the nature and scope of any field of study.
Education is a discipline that is concerned highly with the methods of teaching and learning in schools or school-like environments as opposed to various nonformal and informal means of socialization (e. g. , rural development projects and education through parent-child relationships).
Education can also be seen as the transmission of the values and accumulated knowledge of a society.  In this sense, it is equivalent to what social scientists term socialization or enculturation.  Children—whether conceived among New Guinea tribespeople, the Renaissance Florentines, or the middle classes of Manhattan—are born without culture.
Education is designed to guide the young generations in learning a culture, molding their behavior in the ways of adulthood, and directing them toward their eventual role in society.  In the most primitive cultures, there is often little formal learning—little of what one would ordinarily call school or classes or teachers.  Instead, the entire environment and all activities are frequently viewed as schools and classes, and many or all adults act as teachers.
However, as societies grow to be more complex, the quantity of knowledge to be passed on from one generation to the next generation becomes more than any one person can know, and, hence, there must evolve more selective and efficient means of cultural transmission, and the outcome or the result is formal education—the school and the spe...t called the teacher.
As society becomes ever more complex and schools become ever more institutionalized, the educational
 experience becomes less directly related to daily life, less a matter of showing and learning in the context of the workaday world, and more abstracted from practice, more a matter of distilling, telling, and learning things out of context.
This concentration of learning in a formal atmosphere allows children to learn far more of their culture than they are able to do by merely observing and imitating.  As society gradually attaches more and more importance to education
, it also tries to formulate the overall objectives, content, organization, and strategies of education.  Literature becomes laden with advice on the rearing of the younger generation.  In short, there develop philosophies and theories of education.

 Education project topics

« on: May 06, 2020, 11:46:36 AM »

Home economics as a field of study usually to a common man bring to the mind about sewing aprons, cooking, and baking cake.   But however, home economics as a field of study has illuminated the mind so much in the 20th century to know that home economics covers a wide range of studies, including food and nutrition, clothing and textiles, child development, sociology, and consumer protection.
When home economics was first introduced in the late 1800s, the study was somehow in addition to other functions to helped students prepare for life on the farm and helping their families.
In the 20th Century, the study acted as a bridge for students to enter into institutions of higher learning and later into professions.  Students who graduated from these advanced programs went on to teaching positions to pass on this knowledge and some are led into positions in hospitals, restaurants, hotels, and even government.  Along these lines, as universities and other tertiary institutions conducted research, home economics study has taught advanced classes in nutrition and hygiene as well as economics.


Home economics is cooking and other aspects of household management.  Home economics or domestic science, or home science is a field of study that deals with the relationship between individuals, families, communities, and the environment in which they live.  Home economics courses are offered internationally and across multiple educational levels.  Home economics courses have been important throughout history because it gave women the opportunity to pursue higher education and vocational training in a world where only men were able to learn in such environments.  In modern times, home economics teaches people of all genders important life skills, such as cooking, sewing, and finances.  With the stigma the term “home economics” has earned over the years, the course is now often referred to by different terms, such as “family and consumer science.


We study home economics to promote a well- being of individuals.  The study helps the society to develop human progress individually and it comprises major ideas on food, clothing, home, and family.  Human progress is necessary for society to grow and it is so important since well-being is the machinery that vibrant all aspects of human experience.


Here, we've outlined just some of the careers that involve knowledge of home economics.  For some of them, you'll need a qualification in a subject other than home economics to go further, although home economics will still give you a useful background for the career.

1.        Food Scientist/Technologist
2.        Food Technician
3.        Dietitian
4.        Nutritionist
5.        Catering/Restaurant Manager
6.        Hotel Manager
7.        Domestic Services Manager
8.        Chef
9.        Consumer protection (Trading Standards Officer)
10.     Environmental Health Practitioner
11.     Textiles and clothing
12.   Tailor
13.     Fashion Designer
14.     Education (Teaching and lecturing)
15.     Home Care Organiser

Food Scientist/Technologist:
Food Scientists are experts on the biological, chemical, and physical make-up of food, and how food can be processed, stored and preserved.  Food Technologists apply this knowledge to make new food products and ensure that they are safe and of good quality.
Although Food Scientists are more likely to go into research and Food Technologists into production, the division between them is not clear-cut.  Both may work in research and development, production, and quality assurance management.

Food Technician:
Food Technicians help Scientists/Technologists to develop food products.  Technicians test the safety and quality of and finished products, as well as testing packaging, processing, and storage techniques. raw materials
They look after the day-to-day running of the laboratory, and might also help in the research and development of new products.

Dietitians give people information and advice about the right diet to maintain their health or to help them cope with or overcome an illness.
Dietitians may be based in hospitals or the community.  Hospital work mainly involves diet therapy for individual patients, for example, people with food allergies or.  They also train and advise other health professionals in diabetes in the hospital.
In the community, a dietitian might be involved in clinical work or health promotion, or a mixture of both.  For example, they might work with health professionals such as practice nurses and health visitors.  Health GPs promotion could include giving talks in schools or groups such as slimming clubs and pregnant women.
Dietitians work in lots of other areas, including sports nutrition, food, and industries, education, pharmaceutical research, and journalism.

Nutritionists help us to understand how affects our health.  They work in lots of areas, including the NHS, nutrition sports nutrition, the food industry, and animal nutrition.
NHS Nutritionists often work in the community, helping people to prevent problems such as cancer, stroke, and diabetes.  They might run healthy eating sessions, teach cooking skills, and produce information about a healthy diet.
In the food industry, Nutritionists research and develop new food products.  They advise on food products' nutritional content, such as how much fat and salt they have in them.
The right diet can help sports professionals to train and perform at their best.  Nutritionists work with Athletes and Players, and also give people advice in the fitness industry.
Animal Nutritionists look at ways to improve the quality and quantity of things such as eggs, meat, and milk.  They also try to improve pets' diets.

Catering/Restaurant Manager:
Catering/Restaurant Managers work in a wide variety of places, from top hotels to fast-food chains, hospitals, cruise ships, and prisons.
Their main responsibility is for staff management, recruitment, training, and day-to-day organization.  Other areas include quality control, hygiene, and health and safety.
Managers might be responsible for setting and controlling.  They might also plan menus, order supplies; budgets greet customers, and deal with any complaints.  They need to be good at dealing with people and should be able to work under pressure.

Hotel Manager:
The duties of Hotel Managers vary according to the size of the hotel.
In a large hotel, the General Manager organizes a team of departmental Managers, taking overall responsibility for planning, and marketing.  In a smaller hotel or guest house, the work will be more 'hands-on', with greater budgeting day-to-day contact with guests.

Domestic Services Manager:
Domestic Services Managers, often known as 'Housekeepers' in the hotel industry and 'Domestic Bursars' in educational institutions, are responsible for the cleanliness and general maintenance of large residential establishments.  They work in places like hospitals, hotels, schools, universities, and colleges.
They are responsible for organizing the work of domestic staff, who keep the buildings clean and in good condition.  They might have other areas of responsibility, such as organizing laundry services or arranging repairs.
They spend part of their time checking the work of staff, but there is also an office-based element to their work, involving administration and managing.  Budgets

The term 'Chef' tends to be used in hotels and restaurants, whereas 'Cook' is used in work canteens, schools, and hospitals.
In the large hotel and restaurant kitchens, there are a number of spe...t Chefs running different sections (such as vegetables or pastry) under the direction of the Head Chef.  In smaller establishments, the Chef might do everything - ordering food, cooking and clearing up.
There can be opportunities for creative cookery, and to experiment with new and spe...t dishes, particularly for experienced Chefs.
In catering services, such as for airlines, schools, and hospitals, the work is more routine.  It often involves preparing large numbers of meals in a central kitchen, which are then distributed to different sites and re-heated.
Whatever the setting, the work of a Chef or Cook is physically demanding.  Most of the working day is spent standing up in a hot kitchen.  Unsocial hours are often part of the job.

Consumer protection (Trading Standards Officer):
Trading Standards Officers (TSOs) enforce the laws and regulations that cover the goods and services we buy, hire, and sell.
They inspect premises, sample, test and measure products, investigate complaints, give the consumer advice, and enforce the law.   Employ TSOs.  Local authorities
TSOs make regular checks to see if things like scales and petrol pumps measure accurately.  They check toys and electrical products to make sure that they are safe to use.
TSOs might take samples of food and drink products to make sure that nutritional information on labels is accurate and that advertisements are not misleading.

Environmental Health Practitioner:
Environmental Health Practitioners (EHPs) protect us from environmental hazards at home, at work, and in public places.
EHPs make sure our food is safe to eat, and improve conditions for people living in unfit or old housing.  EHPs also monitor and control air, water, land, and noise pollution.
EHPs visit places such as offices, houses, leisure services, shops, and restaurants.  They advise people on the best ways to protect themselves and others from environmental hazards.  EHPs must also enforce the law, for example, closing food premises or requiring Landlords to carry out essential repairs.
Some EHPs work for private companies, making sure that they are following the law and safeguarding their employees and customers.

Textiles and clothing (Textile Designer):
Textile Designers create designs for fabrics, carpets, wall-coverings, and soft furnishings.  Some, particularly in small companies, spend most of their time reworking traditional designs.  In large firms, there may be more opportunities to create original designs.
It's important for Textile Designers to have knowledge of yarns, dyes, and manufacturing processes, as these affect designs.

Fashion Designer:
Fashion Designers design clothing and/or accessories.  A few work in, designing exclusive for haute couture garments individual and producing seasonal collections.  clients
Others design ready-made quality garments, often following the trends set by haute couture.  Fashion Designers working for wholesale manufacturers design the clothes that we see in shops and in catalogs.

Tailors produce hand-crafted garments - particularly men's suits - to order.  They also make alterations to garments.
They advise customers on the range of fabrics and styles available and take measurements.  They then make cardboard or paper patterns, cut out cloth and stitch the garments, mainly by hand.

Textile industry:
There are also many technical jobs in the textile industry, such as:
Textile Technologist Textile Technician Textile Operative Dyeing Technician

Education (Teaching and lecturing):
Most Home Economics Teachers work in secondary schools.  They teach pupils about child development, food, and nutrition, or textiles.  Design and Technology Teachers can also cover areas related to home economics, such as food technology and textile technology.
Teaching methods include group and practical work, discussions, and using audio-visual materials and the internet.  Teaching may also involve visits to places of educational interest.  Home Economics Teachers also have to plan lessons, mark work, write reports, go to meetings, and give feedback.

Home Care Organiser:
Home Care Organisers manage the services that help people to cope with their own homes.  They recruit, train, and supervise Home Care Assistants who provide practical, social, and emotional care too.  Home Care Organisers clients assess clients' needs and arrange services such as the delivery of free meals.
Other jobs in the caring services
Some people with training in home economics go into housing work or health education/promotion.

As a student, after knowing and understanding home economics as a field of study and its benefits to individuals and the society at large, researchwap. com, and projecttopics. site as an online resource center have come up with a vast database for students to have access to numerous free project topics and uncountable research materials on home economics and it related courses.
Below are few home economics project topics that you might want to take a look at


Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing.  In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data and how you collected it.

This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project.  Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc.

You also tell the reader why you chose a particular method, how you planned to analyze your data.  Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interview or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study.  Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is, in effect, a textbook.

A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study.  The chapter should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of the study.

It is very important that before choosing a method, try and ask yourself the following questions:

Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

For instance, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your methodology.

Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.  The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible methodology chapter.



A qualitative study does not have variables.  A scientific study has variables, which are sometimes mentioned in Chapter 1 and defined in more depth in Chapter 3.  Spell out the independent and dependent, variables.  An unfortunate trend in some institutions is to repeat the research questions and/or hypotheses in both Chapter 1 and Chapter 3.  Sometimes an operational statement of the research hypotheses in the null form is given to set the stage for later statistical inferences.  In a quantitative study, state the level of significance that will be used to accept or reject the hypotheses.

Pilot Study

In a quantitative study, a survey instrument that the researcher designed needs a pilot study to validate the effectiveness of the instrument, and the value of the questions to elicit the right information to answer the primary research questions in.  In a scientific study, a pilot study may precede the main observation to correct any problems with the instrumentation or other elements in the data collection technique.  Describe the pilot study as it relates to the research design, development of the instrument, data collection procedures, or characteristics of the sample.


In a research study, the instrument used to collect data may be created by the researcher or based on an existing instrument.  If the instrument is a researcher created, the process used to select the questions should be described and justified.  If an existing instrument is used, the background of the instrument is described including who originated it and what measures were used to validate it.

If a Likert scale is used, the scale should be described.  If the study involves interviews, an interview protocol should be developed that will result in a consistent process of data collection across all interviews.  Two types of questions are found in an interview protocol: the primary research questions, which are not asked of the participants, and the interview questions that are based on the primary research questions and are asked of the participants.


In a qualitative study, this is the section where most of the appendices are itemized, starting with letters of permission to conduct the study and letters of invitation to participate with the attached consent forms.  Sample: this has to do with the number of your participants or subjects as the case may be.  Analysis (how are you planning to analyze the results?)



This chapter deals effectively with the research methods to be adopted in conducting the research, and it is organized under the following sub-headings:

Research Design
Area of Study
The population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Instruments for Data Collection
The validity of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Administration of the instruments
Scoring the instruments
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis



Research Design:

This has to do with the structure of the research instrument to be used in collecting data.  It could be in sections depending on different variables that form the construct for the entire topic of the research problems.  A reliable instrument with a wrong research design will adversely affect the reliability and generalization of the research.  The choice of design suitable for each research is determined by many factors among which are: kind of research, research hypothesis, the scope of the research, and the sensitive nature of the research


Area of Study:


Research Area; this has to do with the geographical environment of the study area where the places are located, the historical background when necessary and commercial activities of that geographical area.  For example, the area of the study is Ebonyi State University.  At the creation of Ebonyi State in 1996, the Abakaliki campus of the then ESUT was upgraded to Ebonyi State University College by Edict no.  5 of Ebonyi State, 1998 still affiliated to ESUT with Prof.  Fidelis Ogah, former ESUT Deputy Vice-Chancellor as the first Rector.  In 1997, the Faculty of Applied and Natural Sciences with 8 departments was added to the fledging University and later in 1998 when the ESUT Pre-Science Programme was relocated to Nsukka, the EBSUC Pre-Degree School commenced lectures in both Science and Arts in replacement of the former.  This study focused on the students of the Business Education department at Ebonyi state university.

The population of the Study


The population is regarded in research work as the type of people and the group of people under investigation.  It has to be specific or specified.  For example educational study teachers in Lagos state.  Once the population is chosen, the next thing is to choose the samples from the population.

According to Uma (2007), the population is referred to as the totality of items or object which the researcher is interested in.  It can also be the total number of people in an area of study.  Hence, the population of this study comprised of all the students in the department of Business Education, Ebonyi State University which is made up of year one to four totaling 482.  The actual number for the study was ascertained using Yaro-Yamane's formula which stated thus:

n   =        N

1-N (e)2


N is the Population

1 is constant

e is the error margin

Then, n   =         482

1+482(0. 05)2


1+1. 16

=  482

2. 16

= 214. 35 approximately 214

Sample and sampling technique:


It may not be possible to reach out to the number of people that form the entire population for the study to either interview, observe or serve them with copies of the questionnaire.  To be realistic, the sample should be up to 20% of the total population.  Two sampling techniques are popular among all the sampling techniques.  These are random and stratified random sampling techniques.  (A).  in Random Sampling, the writers select any specific number from a place like a school, village, etc.  (B).  In Stratified Random Sampling, one has to indicate a specific number from a stratum which could be a group of people according to age, qualification, etc.  or different groups from a different location and different consideration attached.


Instruments for Data Collection:


This is a device or different devices used in collecting data.  Example: interview, questionnaire, checklist, etc.  instrument is prepared in sets or subsections, each set should be an entity thus asking questions about a particular variable to be tested after collecting data.  The type of instrument used will determine the responses expected.  All questions should be well set so as to determine the reliability of the instrument.

The validity of the Instrument


This has to do with different measures in order to determine the validity and reliability of the research instrument.  For example, presenting the drafted questionnaire to the supervisor for scrutiny.  Giving the questionnaire to the supervisor for useful comments and corrections would help to validate the instrument.

Reliability of the Instrument


The test-retest reliability method is one of the simplest ways of testing the stability and reliability of an instrument over time.  The test-retest approach was adopted by the researcher in establishing the reliability of the instrument.  In doing this 25 copies of the questionnaire were administered on twenty-five selected respondents.  After two weeks another 25 copies of the same questionnaire were re-administered on the same group.  Their responses on the two occasions were correlated using Pearsons Product Moment Correlation.  A co-efficient of 0. 81 was gotten and this was high enough to consider the instrument reliable.


Administration of the instruments:


Here, the writer states whether he/ she administers the test personally or through an assistant.  He also indicates the rate of return of the copies of the questionnaire administered.

Scoring the instruments:


Here items on the questionnaire or any other device used must be assigned numerical values.  For example, 4 points to strongly agree, 3 points to agree, 2 points to disagree and 1 point to strongly disagree.

Table of Analysis










Method of Data Collection


The researcher collected data using the questionnaire.  Copies of the questionnaire were administered by the researcher on the respondents.  All the respondents were expected to give maximum co-operation, as the information on the questionnaire is all on things that revolve around their study.  Hence, enough time was taken to explain how to tick or indicate their opinion on the items stated in the research questionnaire.

Method of Data Analysis


In this study, the mean was used to analyze the data collected.  A four (4) point Likert scale was used to analyze each of the questionnaire items.

The weighing was as follows:

VGE—————- Very Great Extent (4 points)

GE—————– Great Extent (3 points)

LE—————– Little Extent (2 points)

VLE—————- Very Little Extent (1 point)


SA—————– Strongly Agree (4 points)

A——————- Agree (3 points)

D—————— Disagree (2 points)

SD—————- Strongly Disagree (1 point)

The mean of the scale will then be determined by summing up the points and dividing their number as follows with the formula:

x = ∑fx


= = 2. 5

Where; x= mean

f= frequency

X= Nominal value of the option

∑= summation

N= Total Number

Therefore, the mean of the scale is 2. 5.

This means that any item statement with a mean of 2. 50 and above is considered agreed by the respondents and any item statement below 2. 5 is considered disagreed.

« on: April 12, 2020, 07:48:55 PM »





Most Project Defense Questions and Steps to Defend Your Project with Recordable Success











Since researchwap. com is consistently in the matter of helping students, particularly, final year students thinking hard for final year project topics that will be qualified to present to their project supervisors and at last to make them rave stamps in their outcomes; we have gotten concerned and wish to make a variety of final year project topics that are catchy, relevant and has minimal cost of research.

This article is certainly not a final authority in the importance of these proposed final year project topics however is a quasi guide, that should give final year students thought of what their final year project topic ought to be and how to approach and how to go about constructing them.
Having a reasonable final year project topic can be a genuine test, particularly, mulling over the condition of the current economy; final year students look for final year project topics with insignificant research cost, are applicable to the ebb and flow situations in the nation and snappy, rather than extensive and 'befuddled'… simply like the parenthesized word. 

After some time, we have gone over final year project topics that are quite confusing and for the most part excessively occupied with factors.  For instance, "The impact of Recession on the Manufacturing Industry and Communications as it Affects Banking Habits": this topic was a moment of cerebral pain, yet at the same time, we made a difference. 

Without bringing up, one can promptly say that the above final year project topic isn't appealing, or has insignificant research cost, it may be important, yet its significance is lost in the over-crowdedness of factors to test.  Factors being "Recession" "Manufacturing Industry" "Communications" and "Banking Habits"; one is left to wonder which of these factors ought to be tried, what instruments to utilize, and the entire final year project writing experience turns into weight and discipline, rather than a learning experience. 

Belatedly, yet huge to this article, the above final year project topic could have been begotten in a few, less difficult structures, as:-

1.        “The Importance of Communications as it affects Customers’ Banking Habits”
2.        “The Importance and Impact of Communications in curbing premature Retirement in the Manufacturing Industry”
3.        “The Impact of Recession as it affects Customers’ Banking Habits”
4.        “Banking Habits and its effect on the Manufacturing Industry”
5.        “Recession and its impact on Productivity in the Manufacturing Industry”

And so numerous other basic and catchy final year project topics that could have been produced using only that complicated one; straightforward and catchy as well as negligible in research cost and general project writing exertion. 

As guaranteed in the beginning, we will exhibit an example of straightforward yet successfully dexterous final year project topics from a portion of the well-known departments


1.    The role of audit in managing fraud a case study of Unilever plc
2.    The problem of financing government corporations
3.    Role of accounting information on small and medium scale business in Nigeria
4.    private sector and the problem of working capital management
5.    Effects of fair value accounting on users of financial statement case study of 6 selected companies listed on the stock exchange market.
6.    Importance of proper accounting in modern-day business
7.    Management accounting and its application to organizational, planning, control and decision making
8.    Impact of auditing in controlling fraud and other financial irregularities
9.    Petroleum profit tax and capital expenditure of the Nigerian economy Taxation as an aid to economic development: pros and cons.
10.    Tax as a stimulus for growth and development in Nigeria

1.    The impact of information technology on banking operations in Nigeria
2.    The impact of the e-payment system in operation efficiency in Nigeria banks.
3.    The effectiveness of non-bank fianncial isntitution on the growth of nigeria economy
4.    The importance of an effective management information system in the banking industry in Nigeria. 
5.    The effect of training on the performance of the employee in an organization.
6.    The role of entrepreneurship in economic growth in Nigeria
7.    Liquidity and credit management in Nigeria banking and industry
8.    Staff development program and employee performance in the banking industry. 
9.    The effect of staff motivation on bank’s services delivery
10.    Procedures and appraisal of risk management for nonbank financial institutions. 


1.    The effect of business organization in Nigerian companies
2.    The role of the auditor in small business organizations
3.    The importance of management in general business administration
4.    The effect of environmental factors on the performance of small and medium scale businesses in Nigeria
5.    The extent which business administration assists in banking operations
6.    Personality and its effects on group performance
7.    Significance of entrepreneurial studies in the understanding of business analysis
8.    The impact of internal control measureson the detection and prevention of fraud in banks
9.    The significant role of business organization in small scale enterprises
10.     A critical study on the effects of job stress on the performance of bankers in Nigeria


1.    Design and implementation of a computer-based warehouse information system
2.    Student project allocation and verification system for monitoring duplication
3.    Design and implementation of an internet cafe billing system
4.    Design and implementation of an online hotel reservation system
5.     Design and implementation of an importation tracking system
6.    GPS and GPRS based telemonitoring system for emergency patient transportation
7.    Design and implementation of the stock management system
8.    Design and implementation of online tutorial on fish farming and production
9.    Design and implementation of an information management system for the computer science department
10.     Design and implementation of an automated school fees payment system


1.    The effect of bank verification number (BVN) on fraud prevention in Nigeria banking industry and Nigeria’s economy
2.    An analysis of the impact of stock market development on economic growth in Nigeria
3.    The impact of the cbn's cashless policy on the development of the banking sector of Nigeria
4.    An assessment of the role of financial market in the economy a case study of Nigerian stock exchange
5.    Impact of exchange rate fluctuations in value-added tax on the economic growth of Nigeria
6.    An empirical investigation of the impact of government education spending on economic growth (1981-2012)
7.    The impact of capital formation via savings and investment on the growth of the Nigerian economy 1980-2013
8.    The impact of technology on economic development in the nigerian financial market activities” with a special focuses on your united bank for Africa (UBA).
9.    The human capital development and economic growth in Nigeria: an empirical analysis
10.     Securities and exchange market and the Nigerian economy; adaptive expectation hypothesis 1990 - 2015


1.    Comparism of using two educational media in teaching and learning the digestive system of farm animals in secondary schools in adamawa state
2.    Evaluation of coaching classes on secondary school students’ performance in chemistry
3.    Effect of instructional materials on teaching and learning in nursery and primary schools
4.    Effects of computer-based instruction on the learning effectiveness of hearing impaired pupils in Lagos state special primary schools
5.    Effect of birth order on students educational development in mainland local government area of Lagos state
6.    Distribution and utilization of educational resources in two state/federal government-owned schools in Lagos state
7.    An investigation into openness-values and counterfactual thinking factors influencing secondary school students’ academic achievement in Ondo Nigeria
8.    Transforming tertiary institutions for mass higher education through distance and open learning approaches in Nigeria
9.    Selection and utilization of social studies instructional methods by secondary school teachers in Ebonyi state
10.    Perceptions of business education students on the relevance of entrepreneurship education at the colleges of education level


1.    Challenges militating against the effective teaching and learning of home economics in senior secondary schools in Rivers state.
2.    Factors affecting the performance of home economics students in senior secondary schools in Akwa Ibom state
3.    The effects of home economics on the business growth of Naraku soya milk manufacturing company Nigeria limited Benue state
4.    The effects of two teaching methods on academic performance of senior secondary school students in home economics
5.    A comparative study on teaching practice experiences of home economics student-teachers: challenges and possible panacea
6.    The level of home economics education literacy among secondary school students in aliade local government area, Benue state.
7.    Assessing the home economics education awareness level among junior secondary school students in Calabar cross river state
8.    Availability of teachers and laboratory facilities for effective teaching and learning of home economics in a junior secondary school in Enugu north
9.    Comparative study of academic performance of home economics students in a junior secondary school in Asaba local government area.
10.    Availability of qualified home economics teachers in effective teaching and learning of home economics in senior secondary schools


1.    Information technology and services delivery: a case study of tertiary hospital in Rivers state
2.    The effect of computer usage on academic achievement of secondary school students in Nigeria
3.    Enhancing the Nigerian economy through wireless internet network enhancing the Nigerian economy through wireless internet network
4.    Improving the capacity of a renewable power system, using solar power panel (a case study of computer science and software lab
5.    Social media entrepreneurship as a tool for national development: a case study of selected bloggers and webmasters in Ikeja, Lagos
6.    A survey of database management in enhancing the work performance of otm graduates in selected organizations in Abuja
7.    The use of information and communication technology in teaching of vocational subjects in Nigeria polytechnics
8.    Assessment of the utilization of internet services among students in federal institutions in Kaduna state
9.    The application of information technology to the learning and teaching of economics in Nigeria: a case study of sec.  sch in Jos
10.     Analysis of data mining techniques of telecommunication companies in Nigeria: a case study of mtn Nigeria


1.    The problems and prospects of corporate social responsibility in the Nigerian manufacturing industry
2.    An assessment of the role of broadcast media in women mobilization during the 2015 general elections in Nigeria
3.    The effect of advertising on consumer preference patterns for malt drinks in Enugu metropolis: a comparative study of Guinness Malta and amstel Malta
4.    Customer relationship management and marketing performance in the Nigeria banking industry
5.    Customer relationship management and company performance in the Nigerian food and beverages industry
6.    A comparative analysis of consumer attitude towards different brands of motor oil lubricant products in Enugu urban
7.    Corporate reputation and marketing performance of the alcoholic beverage industry in Port Harcourt
8.    Brand identity and marketing performance empirical evidence from quoted commercial banks in Nigeria
9.    An analysis of promotional techniques and their fit with some selected private sector organization in Kano metropolis
10.     The effect of consumer protection on brand loyalty of fast-moving consumer goods in Ikeja, Lagos state.


1.    The relevance of traditional rulers in contemporary Nigeria’s governance
2.    Political development in Nigeria: a study of 3 senatorial districts of Akwa Ibom State
3.    Marginalization and youth unrest in the niger-delta region of Nigeria
4.    Effect of political instability on implementation of Nigeria policy on secondary school education
5.    An appraisal of the role of the government in poverty alleviation in Nigeria
6.    Gender inequality and women participation in politics: the Nigeria experience
7.    Voter behavior and the electoral process in Nigeria
8.    The effect of social media on voting behaviour in Nigeria
9.    Impact of the refugee crisis on human security in West Africa
10.    Grassroot democracy and youth development in local government administration


1.    An assessment of the role and challenges of non-governmental organizations in rural development in Nigeria
2.    A study into the problems and solution of the 2007 public procurement act on transparency and accountability
3.    The role of NGOs in the management of the Okwangwo range of Cross river national park (forestry and wildlife resources management)
4.    The influence of conflict management effectiveness on administrative staff productivity in tertiary institutions.
5.    The influence of group pressure on adolescents behavioral problems in Nigeria secondary schools
6.    Public policy and grass-root development in Nigeria (a critical appraisal of national poverty eradication program on Asari-Toru l.  g.  a of river state)
7.    Combating corruption in Nigeria: a case study of the economic and financial crimes commission (fcc)
8.    Factors militating the transformation of the name local government department of public administration
9.    The relationship between parent social-economic growth and educational achievement of their children in the secondary school system in Jahngo local government, Taraba state.
10.     Determination of the structure of income inequality and poverty in a rural household in Yala local government area of Cross River state

The list grows extensively, for final year project topics in any department you're your choice, please visit www. researchwap. com.  We hope this article has been of immense help in giving final year students an idea of how their final year project topics should be effectively coined.

« on: April 01, 2020, 10:10:05 PM »

In each field of endeavor, what makes you stand out from others is the capacity to accomplish something contrastingly and uniquely so that successors will consistently recollect the prints you left on the ways of the world.  In the academic segment, the uniqueness of thoughts and considerations is of fundamental significance particularly with regards to writing a project topic.  Subsequently, we will inspect how to pick a unique project topic.  In the first place, we will take a gander at the significance of having a unique topic


• The topic directs the tune and tone of the whole project.  In the event that the topic it shows to an enormous degree that the student will do a decent project. 

• The topic makes in the brain of any individual who understands it, an early introduction.  Such an impression may impact the general and last judgment of the work. 

• A unique topic is a wellspring of inspiration for the researcher to continue and complete the research.  Similarly, as a dull topic will be a wellspring of debilitation. 

• A unique and great topic will be a wellspring of delight to the researcher for some future years to such an extent that you can generally flaunt it consistently and places without dread or terrorizing. 

If anyone can investing time, cash and disregard family, companions and delight to accomplish a specific objective anytime, ought to be a final year student completing exploration on any project topic to investigate leaving issue and give an answer or suggestion to take care of the pattern issue. 

Project topics for final year student in Nigeria and each student in African Country doing a logical way to deal with getting significant information to back up research, must understand WHY research is significant, REASONS for completing the student final year project, WHAT is the project topics investing on and how will it solve the exiting problem with the relevant information.
No research today is new, we are creating thoughts base on leaving information to produce a given points base on personal modification and understanding at that point.  As information technology advances so are research moving from one level to high and serious stage to truly demonstrate a point that pertinent thoughts are added a year to year as final year student passes on to the labor market as a graduate of any field of study.
Project topics for final year students in Nigeria and students everywhere throughout the world give better opportunities to act naturally creative and educational investigator to acquire a given distinction as graduate.  The sole point of this article is to drop as a primary concern reasons why final year project writing is significant

Coming up next are the 10 reasons why student final year project is significant

Self-confidence: Self-certainty is created dependent on the measure of information about a specific study plainly understood by you. 

Self-confidence during defense as a final year student, you mostly gain in the event that you where the person who does the educational research project from the start to the completion. 

Provide job employment: To each student who completes college neglect to understand that full information on research project writing can give nourishment on the table and fill in as a wellspring of pay.  The territory where research gives work to a student in Nigeria is having decent information on Information Analysis, editing, structural substance improvement, and field information gathering. 

Make student and supervisor relationship: To each student the most significant part in schools is the point at which you are near a supervisor, to understand why the person responds that path during the address, to know whether your opinion of Him or her is valid or bogus.  A decent correspondence among student and supervisor relationships can make work mostly, make 80% consideration, make space for rectifications, advance educational understanding, and empower professional success. 

Strengthening your center abilities: Research invigorates clear expertise includes in investigate procedure and technique to apply to create an ideal point. 

Give the upper hand: The exhibition among you and the other students is how highly knowledgeable you present the research structure of your information.  There is a contrast between a final year student writing project and a year one student starting college. 

Give stage to self-articulation: student and numerous individual today in our general public is confronted with dread to stand up what we know and understand.  Addressing masses today among students is an issue in college which has gobbled up the better piece of our character.  Final year project writing gives space to self-articulation in the open to step up your capacity to address the crowd. 

Expertise arranging: ability arranging in the research process ensure achievement, project arranging must start based on what is my topic, which zone or area will I research on, what is my exploration about, which populace is better, is case study needed? where will I get information and who is my supervisor.  Then planning will lead to success for Student final year project writing.
Advance group working ability: all expertise during project research in bunch give space to the commitment of thought, initiative attitude, content improvement aptitude, introduction ability, advances bunch perusing, make common understanding among the following spe...t in the final year

Proficient relational abilities: great correspondence during research is mostly connected with clear image, sign, and verbal sound to unmistakably educate the listener what you mean at that specific point in time. 

Strength: intensity isn't delaying or frightful notwithstanding real or conceivable peril or rebuke; gallant and brave.  The dread of disappointment during resistance is mostly expressed by the student because of the absence of intensity to stand up what they know and understand about the given topic on study. 
Research is significant and consistently experience by all final year students in Nigeria and numerous nations.  The project topics for final year students in Nigeria and how supervisors include themselves to ensure its quality and substance is up to the worldwide standard of research in today educational system. 
All Student final year project should esteem research work, give complete consideration, energize collaboration and learn new thoughts which will make them not the same as others.


• Personal experience and perception of the researcher: The student's very own perception, information or experience of certain issues that merit a project consideration could lead such a student to get a topic from such experience

• Relevant existing writing: information about some current speculations and project discoveries in a specific territory may uncover a lacuna in the information that should be filled.  This is likewise where a researcher can enter into and draw out a unique topic. 

• Interactions with speakers/associates: a project topic can likewise be borne out through conversations with a potential chief, an instructor or even among cohorts and partners on projectable territories. 


• Is the proposed topic one that truly is limited in the degree to deliver a reasonable research project? On the off chance that the appropriate response is No, at that point don't continue further

• Will the proposed topic make a significant commitment to the information? On the off chance that truly, at that point continue.  Assuming no, at that point stop. 

• Has the topic gotten any insignificant inclusion in the diaries and other related scholarly productions? On the off chance that truly, at that point proceed with the investigation

• Do I have adequate enthusiasm for the project topic now and can such intrigue be supported all through the investigation? In the event that the response to this is No, at that point end the topic, however in the event that indeed, at that point proceeds. 

• Can I assemble adequate information to complete this project? On the off chance that truly, proceeds, however assuming no, end. 

• Can I succinctly and decisively express the targets, points, degree, avocation, and restrictions of the investigation? In the event that truly, proceed, however assuming no, suspend


• Brainstorming: When you conceptualize, you are searching for thoughts regarding the specific topic.  In conceptualizing, you pose some remarkable inquiries: do I have enthusiasm for that specific region? Is there a piece of specific information I need to include?

• Read wide: it is fundamental that you read a great deal of related writing from either the library or the web about the topic you need to expound on with the goal that you will have a solid balance to endure the hardships of the whole project. 

• The title of your project ought to be brief and exact as would be prudent

• Look for catchphrases that you can assist you with formulating a decent and enamoring title.  Convincingly, with all this information put in the right point of view, you will think of a decent project topic that will leave a permanent imprint for a long time into the future.

To choose a good research topic and make the procedure less frustrating, we recommend the accompanying method for the determination of the research project works:
1.  Decide on a useful area or areas of essential interest, for example, accounting, banking, and finance, business administration, computer science, economics, education, marketing,  mass communication et cetera.
2.  Next, pick a sub-region from the practical territory.  For example, a student who has an interest in human resources may pick a research topic on the hospital working environment or organizational behavior
3.  Look for the possible research topic in that sub-region.
4.  Familiarize yourself with the subject matter relating to the proposed project topic idea.
5.  Evaluate any provisional topic you pick precisely and fundamentally.  A student ought to have not less than three speculative topics.  He ought to pick the topic which is most alluring to him or her among alternate topics having analyzed the upsides and downsides of every one of the case study.
6.  Finally, present the chosen topics to the supervisor for facilitating discourse, clarifications, and elaborations if it requires.


It is plainly making no sense to embark on a case study you know almost nothing or nothing about.  Though, it can obviously be contended that the student can acquaint himself with the project topic idea over the span of the investigation or study.  But there are somewhere around two issues with this: firstly, he/she might not be able to defend it before the supervisor.  Secondly, he/she may discover later that the research topic is more troublesome than foreseen or that the required research project materials are not accessible.  He could even lose interest in the research work because of any of these unexpected challenges.  The accompanying criteria should along these lines be borne in the mind of the students:


Numerous students have amidst their research, surrendered or abandon their research project topic for another one since they didn't have enough managing interest for it, in the first instance.  For a few, they may have chosen it since it was proposed by the supervisor or some different people they couldn't state too.  They may have felt that dismissing the project topic at that point would have added up to being ungrateful on their part which could be viewed as an affront to the supervisor.  Whichever way, it is perilous to take a research title you are not so much inspired by in light of the fact that when it gets extreme, your interest in the research title is the thing that will support you more than some other things.


What makes a research topic researchable is the point at which you can research solid information to answer the research questions.  A project work that is researchable can be known to utilize available and scientific tools and techniques.  Likewise, a research work might be un-researchable not on the grounds that the pertinent information doesn't exist, but rather in light of the fact that the student doesn't approach them.


The possibility of the final year project alludes to what it will take the student to finish the research topic as far as the expense of the final year project, the monetary use, and the time allotment for the final year research.  Thusly, it is vital that the student from the beginning, gauge that he has everything necessary to finish the research project regarding the fund and research materials, and furthermore that he will have the capacity to finish the final year research inside the time period allotted for it.  In the event that the response to this is negative, at that point he should forsake the project topic before setting out on it.

« on: March 27, 2020, 11:10:49 AM »


I would love to begin by saying that a greater number of students are conducting research just for the sole purpose of acquiring their degrees in their field of studies.  They involve solely for the acquisition of the degree such that they neglect or do not know the real meaning or what research is really about.   In fact, there are two approaches or objectives for conducting research.   The first one is the traditional way of conducting research which is conducting research for only filling the knowledge gap.  This kind of people in doing the research consult only books, journals, conference papers and they try to find where the research gap is even if the research is trivial and not important the researcher will insist to conduct the research in the area.  Unfortunately, most traditional researchers do this form of research, they just try to find only a gap in research especially in management and management information system, people try to find just a gap, for the reason of filling the gap and publish a paper and they say we have a research, we have available research, but I don’t think so, just to fill knowledge gap is not a big deal, hence it is not research.
On the other hand, other people feel that research is just to solve a problem.  This kind of people, we can call them consultants.  They look at the problem from different perspectives, they contact the company and understand the problem of the company and try to solve the problem of the company.  Unfortunately, this kind of people don’t look at books as the others do, they try to write one or two books, four or five journals and that is it and they try to solve the problem from their own experience, however, they don’t look deep into literature review as the first group does.  The problem here is that this person may end up repeating what others have done because they don’t know what others have done in that area and they have a major problem.
Therefore, as can be seen, the two groups are not purely right.  The first group misses the problem-solving nature of every research, while the second group may end up repeating what others have done since they don’t engage in the thorough literature review.  They end up not filling the knowledge gap.  What then is real research?
The real research is being somewhere in between the two groups: “filling knowledge gap and solve a problem”.  You can be anywhere in between but in most cases, you have a condition.  The first condition is that you have to solve a problem but before solving a problem you must do REsearch.  What is research? You have to search for books and papers to check if someone has solved a similar problem before, even if someone has done the research, you can criticize the person to find a knowledge gap.
Therefore, research involves solving a problem and filling a knowledge gap at the same time.
According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon.  Research involves inductive and deductive methods. ” Careful consideration of the study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods.  Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon.  Research involves inductive and deductive methods (Babbie, 1998).  Inductive methods analyze the observed phenomenon and identify the general principles, structures, or processes underlying the phenomenon observed; deductive methods verify the hypothesized principles through observations.  The purposes are different: one is to develop explanations, and the other is to test the validity of the explanations.
One thing that we have to pay attention to research is that the heart of the research is not on statistics, but the thinking behind the research.  How we really want to find out, how we build arguments about ideas and concepts, and what evidence that we can support to persuade people to accept our arguments.
Inductive research methods are used to analyze an observed event.  Deductive methods are used to verify the observed event.  Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative research.
Research is conducted with a purpose to understand:
•      What do organizations or businesses really want to find out?
•      What are the processes that need to be followed to chase the idea?
•      What are the arguments that need to be built around a concept?
•      What is the evidence that will be required for people to believe in the idea or concept?

Gall, Borg, and Gall (1996) proposed four types of knowledge that research contributed to education as follows:
1.   Description: Results of research can describe the natural or social phenomena, such as its form, structure, activity, change over time, relationship to other phenomena.  The descriptive function of research relies on instrumentation for measurement and observations.  The descriptive research results in our understanding of what happened.  It sometimes produces statistical information about aspects of education.
2.   Prediction: Prediction research is intended to predict a phenomenon that will occur at time Y from information at an earlier time X.  In educational research, researchers have been engaged in:
o  Acquiring knowledge about factors that predict students' success in school and in the world of work
o  Identifying students who are likely to be unsuccessful so that prevention programs can be instituted.
3.   Improvement: This type of research is mainly concerned with the effectiveness of the intervention.  The research approach includes experimental design and evaluation research.
4.   Explanation: This type of research subsumes the other three: if the researchers are able to explain an educational phenomenon, it means that they can describe, can predict its consequences, and know-how to intervene to change those consequences.

Characteristics of research

1.   A systematic approach must be followed for accurate data.  Rules and procedures are an integral part of the process that sets the objective.  Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
2.   Research is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
3.   The data or knowledge that is derived is in real-time from actual observations in natural settings.
4.   There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
5.   Research creates a path for generating new questions.  Existing data helps create more opportunities for research.
6.   Research is analytical in nature.  It makes use of all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
7.   Accuracy is one of the most important aspects of research.  The information that is obtained should be accurate and true to its nature.  For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data.  Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the final result of the experiment.

What are the types of research?

Following are the types of research methods:
Basic research: A basic research definition is data collected to enhance knowledge.  The main motivation is knowledge expansion.  It is non-commercial research that doesn’t facilitate in creating or inventing anything.  For example, an experiment to determine a simple fact.
Applied research: Applied research focuses on analyzing and solving real-life problems.  This type refers to the study that helps solve practical problems using scientific methods.  Studies play an important role in solving issues that impact the overall well-being of humans.  For example: finding a specific cure for a disease.
Problem-oriented research: As the name suggests, problem-oriented research is conducted to understand the exact nature of a problem to find out relevant solutions.  The term “problem” refers to multiple choices or issues when analyzing a situation.
For example, the revenue of a car company has decreased by 12% in the last year.  The following could be the probable causes: there is no optimum production, poor quality of a product, no advertising, or economic conditions.
Problem-solving research: This type of research is conducted by companies to understand and resolve their own problems.  The problem-solving method uses applied research to find solutions to existing problems.
Qualitative research: Qualitative research is a process that is about the inquiry.  It helps create an in-depth understanding of problems or issues in their natural settings.  This is a non-statistical method.
Qualitative research is heavily dependent on the experience of the researchers and the questions used to probe the sample.  The sample size is usually restricted to 6-10 people.  Open-ended questions are asked in a manner that encourages answers that lead to another question or group of questions.  The purpose of asking open-ended questions is to gather as much information as possible from the sample.
The following are the methods used for qualitative research:
1.   One-to-one interview
2.   Focus groups
3.   Ethnographic research
4.   Content/Text Analysis
5.   Case study research
Learn more: Qualitative Research Methods
Quantitative research: Qualitative research is a structured way of collecting data and analyzing it to draw conclusions.  Unlike qualitative methods, this method uses a computational and statistical process to collect and analyze data.  Quantitative data is all about numbers.
Quantitative research involves a larger population — more people means more data.  With more data to analyze, you can obtain more accurate results.  This method uses closed-ended questions because the researchers are typically looking to gather statistical data.
Online surveys, questionnaires, and polls are preferable data collection tools used in quantitative research.  There are various methods of deploying surveys or questionnaires.
Online surveys allow survey creators to reach large amounts of people or smaller focus groups for different types of research that meet different goals.  Survey respondents can receive surveys on mobile phones, in emails, or can simply use the internet to access surveys.
Learn more: What is Quantitative Research?

What Is the Purpose of Research?

There are three purposes of research:
1.   Exploratory: As the name suggests, exploratory research is conducted to explore a group of questions.  The answers and analytics may not offer a final conclusion to the perceived problem.  It is conducted to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before.  This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive research and data collection.
2.   Descriptive: Descriptive research focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection.  Descriptive studies are used to describe the behavior of a sample population.  In a descriptive study, only one variable is required to conduct the study.  The three main purposes of descriptive research are describing, explaining, and validating the findings.  For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a huge sum of money from the company profit.
3.   Explanatory: Explanatory research or causal research is conducted to understand the impact of certain changes in existing standard procedures.  Conducting experiments is the most popular form of casual research.  For example, a study conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
To understand the characteristic of research design using research purpose here is a comparative analysis:
   Exploratory Research   Descriptive Research   Explanatory Research
Research approach used   Unstructured   Structured   Highly structured
Research conducted through   Asking research questions   Asking research questions   By using research hypotheses.
When is it conducted?   Early stages of decision making   Later stages of decision making   Later stages of decision making
Learn More: Primary Research – Examples, Methods and Purpose
The research method is defined as the tools or instruments used to accomplish the goals and attributes of a study.  Think of the methodology as a systematic process in which the tools or instruments will be employed.  There is no use of a tool if it is not being used efficiently.
Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem.  After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw appropriate conclusions.
When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better.  By thoroughly collecting data from customers through surveys and questionnaires, you get important insights into brand perception and product needs.  You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.

Types of research methods and research example

Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

Qualitative Methods

Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods.  Participants are asked open-ended questions.  The responses collected are essentially non-numerical.  This method not only helps a researcher understand what participants think but also why they think in a particular way.
Types of qualitative methods include:
•      One-to-one Interview: This interview is conducted with one participant at a given point in time.  One-to-one interviews need a researcher to prepare questions in advance.  The researcher asks only the most important questions to the participant.  This type of interview lasts anywhere between 20 minutes to half an hour.  During this time the researcher collects as many meaningful answers as possible from the participants to draw inferences.
•      Focus Groups: Focus groups are small groups comprising of around 6-10 participants who are usually experts in the subject matter.  A moderator is assigned to a focus group who facilitates the discussion amongst the group members.  A moderator’s experience in conducting the focus group plays an important role.  An experienced moderator can probe the participants by asking the correct questions that will help them collect a sizable amount of information related to the research.
•      Ethnographic Research: Ethnographic research is an in-depth form of research where people are observed in their natural environment without This method is demanding due to the necessity of a researcher entering the natural environment of other people.  Geographic locations can be a constraint as well.  Instead of conducting interviews, a researcher experiences the normal setting and daily life of a group of people.
•      Text Analysis: Text analysis is a little different from other qualitative methods as it is used to analyze social constructs by decoding words through any available form of documentation.  The researcher studies and understands the context in which the documents are written and then tries to draw meaningful inferences from it.  Researchers today follow activities on a social media platform to try and understand patterns of thoughts.
•      Case Study: Case study research is used to study an organization or an entity.  This method is one of the most valuable options for modern This type of research is used in fields like the education sector, philosophical studies, and psychological studies.  This method involves a deep dive into ongoing research and collecting data.

Quantitative Research Methods

Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms.  It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data.  It is used to answer questions in terms of justifying relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
There are three methods that are often used by researchers:
•      Survey Research — The ultimate goal of survey research is to learn about a large population by deploying a survey.  Today, online surveys are popular as they are convenient and can be sent in an email or made available on the internet.  In this method, a researcher designs a survey with the most relevant survey questions and distributes the survey.  Once the researcher receives responses, they summarize them to tabulate meaningful findings and data.
•      Descriptive Research — Descriptive research is a method that identifies the characteristics of an observed phenomenon and collects more information.  This method is designed to depict the participants in a very systematic and accurate manner.  In simple words, descriptive research is all about describing the phenomenon, observing it, and drawing conclusions from it.
•      Correlational Research— Correlational research examines the relationship between two or more variables.  Consider a researcher is studying a correlation between cancer and married Married women have a negative correlation with cancer.  In this example, there are two variables: cancer and married women.  When we say negative correlation, it means women who are married are less likely to develop cancer.  However, it doesn’t mean that marriage directly avoids cancer.

Identifying Research Methodology

To choose the appropriate types of research, you need to clearly identify the objectives.  Some objectives to take into consideration for your business include:
•      Find out the needs of your clients.
•      Know their preferences and understand what is important to them.
•      Find an appropriate way to make your customers aware of your products and services.
•      Find ways to improve your products or services to suit the needs of your customers.
After identifying what you need to know, you should ask what research methods will offer you that information.
Organize your questions within the framework of the 7 Ps of marketing that influences your company – product, price, promotion, place, people, processes, and physical tests.
A well-organized customer research process produces valid, accurate, reliable, timely, and complete results.  Results that rigorously reflect the opinions and needs of your clients will help you grow your sales and improve your operations.  To obtain the results, you need to establish and follow the processes that you have detailed out for your organization:

Set your goals

Consider the client’s objectives and define those that identify with yours.  Make sure that you set smart goals and objectives.  Do not presume the results of your surveys.

Plan your research

Good planning allows the use of creative and logical approaches to select the methods that gather the most accurate information.  Your plan will be influenced by the type and complexity of the information you need, the skills of your market research team, and how soon you need the information.  Your budget also plays a large role in your ability to collect data.

Collect and collate your results

Make a list of how you are going to carry out the research process, the data you need to collect, and collection methods.  This will help you keep track of your processes and make sense of your findings.  It will also allow you to verify that your research accurately reflects the opinions of your clients and your market.  Create a record table with:
•      The consumer research activity
•      The necessary data
•      The methods for data collection
•      The steps to follow for data analysis.
Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable.  Relying on imperfect research is dangerous.  Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
It is important to obtain information about how the collection of customer information was carried out, and to ensure that your data is:
•      Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
•      Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
•      Reliable – that can be reproduced by other people who investigate in the same way.
•      Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
•      Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

Analyze and understand your research

Analysis of the data can vary from simple and direct steps to technical and complex processes.  Adopt an approach, and choose the method of data analysis based on the methods you have carried out.

Keep the findings ready

Choose a spreadsheet that allows you to easily enter your data.  If you do not have a large amount of data, you should be able to manage them with the use of basic tools available in survey software.  If you have collected more complete and complex data, you may have to consider using specific programs or tools that will help you manage your data.

Review and interpret the information to draw conclusions

Once you have gathered all the data, you can scan your information and interpret it to draw conclusions and make informed decisions.  You should review the data and then:
•      Identify the main trends and issues, opportunities, and problems you observe.  Write a sentence describing each one.
•      Keep track of the frequency with which each of the main findings appears.
•      Make a list of your findings from the most common to the least common.
•      Evaluate a list of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that have been identified in a SWOT analysis.
•      Prepare conclusions and recommendations regarding your research.
Review your goals before making any conclusions about your research.  Keep in mind how the process you have completed and the data you have gathered help answer your questions.  Ask yourself if what your research revealed facilitates the identification of your conclusions and recommendations.  Review your conclusions and, based on what you know now:

Choose some strategies that will help you improve your business

•      Act on your strategies
•      Look for gaps in the information and consider doing additional research if necessary
•      Plan to review the results of the research, and consider efficient strategies to analyze and dissect results for interpretation.
https://researchwap. com/post/what-is-research-and-how-to-research

Most Project Defense Questions and Steps to Defend Your Project with Recordable Success

Project Defense Questions:

Question 1: Why Did You Decide to Undertake This Particular Project Topic?
This project defense question will be troublesome which is beyong convincing the panel that you simply have done an applicable study.  "What is that analysis issue?" It is likewise, which you should answer directly. 
The issue(s) raised and handle during the study ought to be clarified indepthly.  Disclose that your mission to handle this drawback or disadvantage transformed into your motivation which powered the need to discover an answer for it.  Endeavor not to state money related reasons or the need to graduate as an explanation as you will destroy the motivation behind research. 

Questions 2: What Motivates You On Your Research?
Questions two and three may seem to be comparable anyway respondent may uncover a little qualification.  You'll be persuaded by expressing different disadvantages to begin this analysis.  You'll be inspired by the need to add to the data pool inside the field and you'll even be persuaded by professional interest. 

Question 3: Why Is the Drawback you’ve Got Tackled Valuable:
You should have the option to decide the issue being handled as important enough to warrant the direct of an educational examination concerning its goals. 

Question 4: What's Your Analysis About?
This is frequently the essential project defense question that you will be asked.  Well this is frequently an area of educational logical research resistance technique that gets most students stifling for words not understanding what is expected is a condensed analysis in a couple of sentences utilizing your Abstract.  It's the exact of the work and a higher comprehension of your abstract that is all you wish to ask past this commonly humiliating question. 

Question 5: What Are The Aims, Questions, and Hypotheses?
Students shouldn't trouble much about being in-depth when answering this.  It’d be re-asked during your Ph. D defense.
Question 6: However Can This Study Contribute To The Body Of Knowledge?
This is a question that has not altered throughout the years.  As of now you're expected to legitimize how your study can expand the current data.  Your methodology, discourse analysis or any special model or abstract framework that was utilized as a part of the investigation ought should be stated and defended.

Question 7: What is the Importance of the Study?
Disclose your commitment to the present data pool.  You should put forth a defense for the significance of your analysis.  To respond to this question, you should present a defense for how and why the study can encourage the governmentt to move toward the creation and advancement of arrangements. 

Question 8: Did you connect any hole from your Study?
You should utilize your tutorial logical research to unwind existing downside.  Inspect present issues.  At this stage you need to layout the issues that your analysis was led to approach. 

Question 9: What Limitations Did You Encounter?
This is another simple yet sensitive question.  To address this question, you should be careful with words as you will trap yourself.  Be adequately vigilant to not supply out yourself.  Endeavor to not cite the imperatives in your information analysis techniques as this would deduce that your assessment can be one-sided or not well researched.  Utilize simple and extra clear confinements simply like the issues you encountered connection addresses and task as critical limiting your investigation

Question 10: What Area unit is the main discoveries/Findings of this Research Analysis?
Quickly put forth a defense for the final result of your study.  Please it's significant at this phase you simply connect the final result of your study to your analysis question to stay away from or turn out of direction.  Associate your findings to your analysis objectives/questions.  this may build the board to successfully be continued. 

Question 11: Do Your Findings Compare With Alternative Analysis During This Field?
Rundown  your findings and rundown out the findings of alternative that comes within the same field and highlight the gaps that your analysis serves to fill.  put forth a defense for anyway the findings of alternative analyzers exclusively serve to go with anyway not to invalidate your research.

Question 12: Treat And Justify Your Analysis Methodology. 
To move beyond this piece of your instructional exercise analysis barrier, you need to have a sound data of your Chapter three.  Put forth a defense for your analysis methodology and also the reason behind your alternative of that method.  At this time your ability to justify your sample size and technique are extremely rewarded here.

Question 13: Why Opt For This Method?
You ought to have the option to at this stage put forth a defense for the explanations behind your alternative of methodology.  If you’re aiming to defend your analysis then you’re undoubtedly aiming to defend your analysis methodology and this is often not as troublesome because it could appear, simply quotes studies wherever this methodology are utilized in the past to support the rationale behind your alternative of methodology.

Question 14: On arriving at Your Discoveries/Findings What Are Your Recommendations?
Proposals are fundamental in each study .  You should, manufacture proposals.  However I think if you’ve got survived the educational analysis defense method up to the purpose wherever you’re asked this question then you won’t have any drawback, after you are asked to reveal your recommendations.

Question 15: What And Where Did You Get And Go Wrong?
Once more, you need to abstain from uncovering your risk.  You’ll imply obvious mistakes like grammatical errors and typographies however don’t ever choose a hole in your methodology or statistics.  Avoid exposing the weak points in your analysis.

Question 16: Supported Your Findings, What Areas Can You Recommend For Future Research?
At the point when you are asked this explicit tutorial scientific research defense question you ought to try and build suggestions for future researchers as an example, if I researched on the challenges of automatic teller machine usage in Federal Republic of Nigeria, a decent space for future study could also be in electronic banking or purpose of sales systems.
The best gratitude to move beyond this, you regularly need to recognize the information gaps still existing inside the realm of your study.   These information gapss should as of now be clear to you all through the analysis method. 

Question 17: What Is The Practicality Of Your Research?
This question is regularly direct for science students and engineering students aside from the social researchers or the administration science students it’s going to be a small amount difficult as a result of their analysis area unit principally within the kind of abstracts.
 Be that as it may, you should endeavor your best to be practical here.  Use examples and illustrations which are relatable and relevant can score you smart purpose here.

Question 18: Would You Summarize Your Study To A Professional In An Exceedingly Few Sentences?
Here you should start with terminologies associated with your analysis, for example, what you are required to know to be knowledgeable of that field.  Just outline the technical importance of your analysis.  Your ability to give specific infomation from the findings can score you incredible marks here. 

Question 19: What Would You Edit If You Were To Conduct The Study Again?
Some of the time such tutorial research project defense question area unit requested to lure you into exposing the weaknesses in your research; the question is supposed to purpose you towards the weaknesses in your research thus please simply do a similar issue I asked you to try to in question six.

Question 20: What is Your Activity Instrument?
This instructional exercise logical project defense question is solely associate degree inquiry concerning your information assortment methodology for the study.  Here you state if questionnaires were distributed or information was gotten from secondary sources.

Question 21: What Are Your Analysis Variables?
Here you should prevail upon the board members that you simply comprehend what you're talking concerning project topics and it defense.  You wish to explain your independent and dependent variable(s) to prevail upon them that you just set your area unit on purpose.  Your variables area unit gift in your project topic.  You wish to detect these variables and understand their definitions likewise to be expert in your defense. 

Question 22: What Are Your Analysis Questions?
This shouldn't cause any test at all as your analysis queries area unit clearly declared in chapter one.

Question 23: What Do You Commit To Do Together With Your Scientific Research Once Graduation?
In the event that you propose to distribute your analysis or build some components of it out there to a web diary then this is regularly the half any place you'd notice at that.  Proposing that you simply need to make your analysis out there on-line for future analysts or as area of an internet publication is often a awfully spectacular plan.

Question 24: What Supply Of Knowledge Was Used For The Study?
Right now you must express the source(s) you purchased data from.  Ordinarily you must state whether data was gotten from primary or secondary supply or each.  You'll extra prevail upon the board of trustees members  by discoursing on literature reviewed for the study-both theoretical and empirical.

Question 25: What Theories Or Theoretical Framework Is Your Study Primarily Based On?
Never pick your  research project defense without information of a minimum of 2 relevant theories that relate to your study.  For instance, the "effect of inspiration on workers profitability" are bolstered Maslow's Theory and elective speculations of inspiration. 
On the off chance that you can not see important theories to keep a copy your study, consult your supervisor for  encourage or send America a mail permit us to interface you with a chase proficient. 

Question 26:  Would You Relate Your Findings To Existing Theories On The Study?
Presently this is an express project defense question.  It is reasonable to analyze anyway your research relates with existing theories in your study.  You ought to understand existing theories on the topic matter also as empirical studies too. .  Your capacity to connect your findings to previous analysis studies (regardless of whether they concur or not) can go an all-encompassing way in securing  your study. 
Question 27: Has your intuition adjusted as a result of your research?
They need to comprehend what your initial opinion concerning the study was and that they are observance to find out if your opinion have adjusted over the span of the stdy.  you’ve got to be terribly careful in respondent this queries as a result of you want to offer tangible reasons for any amendment in opinion and if care isn’t taking you will build your analysis appear obsolete by voice communication your opinion concerning the analysis modified throughout the course of the study.  Be frightfully cautious once responding to such research or project defense question that will invalidate your research.

Question 28: What suggestions do you  have for future research?
This research project defense question is asking  you from areas that you are very well might have extra research on.  This is regularly and basically done by distinctive problems around you that don’t seem to be however analyzed and highlight them out as stuffed with prospects for future research.

Question 29: What is The Scope Of The Study?
Express the limit line of the study  quickly.  This may be date or earth science or each. 

Question 30: What Question(S) Do You Have For The Committee?
Not a potential instructional tutorial logical research defense question in our Nigerian setting.  This is frequently an opportunity to act together with your committee members and raise some constructive queries.  Try not to raise senseless or too inconvenient findings in light of the fact that the objective should be to make the board members feel on the grounds that the "judges".  It'll moreover go an all-encompassing way in indicating that you just area unit an amazing and guaranteed
Knowing and getting the topic is of embodiment.  Care ought to be taken to know the rudiments of all of issue which emerge in the issue and how to handle them.  Having great relational abilities help as well.  Be professional and abrupt when you ought to be. 
What's your interpretation of this? We accept this article was intriguing right, if indeed, don't stop for a second utilizing our offer catch underneath to illuminate – companions and connection through Facebook, twitter or Google+

Above are the most effective project defense questions that you will be asked by the board members and below are the steps to defend your project effectively with colourful result

Project in all is an individual or community task, potentially associated with research or configuration work that is painstakingly arranged, usually by a project team to achieve a particular aim. 
Right now, we  will concentrate on eight significant angles on the most proficient method to defend a final year project effectively
1. Get Ready For Questions: If you are getting ready for questions that might be asked during your defense, at that point your answers will stream easily and adequately.  This will demonstrate your insight regarding the topics, and reinforcing your contention.  Ask loved ones like friend and family, read your work for them to listen to your presentation, and record down questions.  You might be lucky that the panel will ask you those you have just getting prepared on. 

2.  Solid Summary:  Summarizing your parts will help keep your crowd centered in light of the fact that it is simple for a mind to drift, so giving summaries will ensure your panel will follow along, regardless of whether they lose focus for a brief moment.  Visual associates, for example, graphs and power-point presentations can be useful.  On the off chance that you are going to utilize these, ensure you will rehearse your presentation  with them. 

3.  Be Bold in Your Project Work: Not knowing your point back to front will make you battle and eventually come up short with your project defense.  You have to know the topic  from each point to guarantee you are completely arranged for any question that may comes your direction. 

4.  Conclusion: Reinforce your findings to round up your defense.  The finale of your presentation should concentrate on demonstrating the work that has been finished.  You may need to recap on what has changed and stayed unchange, if it  is necessary. 

5 .  Tune in or Listen: Before you get cautious or recount a specific answer, ensure you really understand the question being asked.  Being a decent audience is a significant quality, on the grounds that giving a mistaken or off-topic answer will likewise debilitate the legitimacy of your paper. 
On the off chance that you don't have the foggiest idea about the appropriate response, answer that you don't have the data accessible to give an exact answer.  Almost certainly, the panel knows the response to that specific inquiry you were being asked, thus they will realize that the one you are giving is a wrong answer.  Likewise you should not be shy in approaching or asking the panel  for a question  to be repeted on the off chance that you didn't get it well, this will assemble your trust in the way to deal with your reaction. 

6.  Do Adequate Research on Your Topic: Before defending your project, you should source for similar materials on you topic, center focus on how the problems were identified and addressed.  Identify your keywords, variables, background of the study and also be able to explain in detail your abstract and conclusion off-hand before your defense date. 

7.  Know What Motivate You For Your Researc Project: Most final year students  in Nigeria defending their projects do not perform well since they neglect to distinguish their motives in their study.  The inspiration for your project is most likely the principal answer to any question you might be asked  in the defense hall or room. 
Before a research project is attempted, there is normally an issue to understand.  The craving to tackle that issue will turn into your motivation for the study.  Try not to utilize cash to look into without investing your effort, your energy to take care of an issue ought to be your motivation towards your study. 
Inspiration for the study  is the best to apply in addresses like "why attempt this study? Enlighten us regarding your work" so in the event that you were utilizing cash to compose your project, by what means will you inform the panel  concerning your motivation towards your work?

8.  Proficient or Professional  Discussion on Your Project Topic: Make your friends and family your panel members, and defend  before them.  Advise them to reprimand and ask you various questions.  With this small preparation you will tune your mentality for what a defense hall will look like.  You can likewise look for proficient or professional assistance before defense date. 
Here are some few tips that will help you on your defense day.
Rehearse with friends again and again before entry into the defense hall which we have already considered above.
Develop good self-esteem and confidence.
Comport yourself well and for ladies don’t apply much makeup on your faces during your defense, when you are out of the hall you can make up as much as you want.

« on: March 18, 2020, 04:40:55 PM »

The educational curriculum states that the end goal is to be granted a degree after graduation.  Before this, there is a need for students to carry out research in their field of studies.  Consequently, this is done at the final year level in all university institutions.  A considerable number of final year students have challenges with regards to choosing their project topics.  This is because they lack knowledge on the rudiments of picking a decent research project topic with the end goal, such that most students score terrible marks at the end of it or even have to change the project topic halfway through.  This article is therefore targeted at helping final year students to know the basics in regards to choosing and developing their final year project topics.
Research work is an essay that presents the results of a writer’s (students) investigation of a particular topic in print, electronic, or multimedia format.  The skills involved—finding, evaluating, and assimilating the ideas of other writers—are essential in any field of study.  They will also be useful to you in your career.  Most of the writing you do on the job, especially if you are in management, it requires you to express in your own words the facts, opinions, and ideas of others.
     Writing a research project work follows the same process as other kinds of writing, from planning through drafting to revising.  The difference is that instead of relying exclusively on what you already know about a topic, you include source material—facts, data, knowledge, or opinions of other writers—to support your thesis.  This section explains the different kinds of source material you can choose from and tells you the strengths and weaknesses of each.  See How to Summarize, Paraphrase, and Quote from Sources on this article for information on how to integrate into your paper the information you have found.
A research project work is not simply a collection of what other people have said about a subject.  It is your responsibility to shape and control the discussion, to make sure that what you include from your sources is interesting and relevant to your thesis, and to comment on its validity or significance.  It is your project, your thesis, your key ideas.  Ideas from other writers should be included as support for your topic sentences.
     One of the challenges of writing a research project work is differentiating between your ideas and those you took from sources.  Readers cannot hear the different “speakers,” so you have to indicate who said what.  To separate your sources from your own ideas, research papers require documentation—a system of acknowledging source materials.  Research works are usually longer than essays, and the planning process is more complex.  For these reasons, the time you are given to complete a research assignment is usually longer than the time allowed for an essay.  Don’t fool yourself into thinking you can put the assignment off for a few weeks.  You will need all the time you’ve been given to find the sources you need, decide what you want to say, and then draft, revise, and polish your paper.  Supervisors assign research papers so that they can assess not only your research skills but also your writing skills.


To choose a good research topic and make the procedure less frustrating, we recommend the accompanying method for the determination of the research project works:
1.  Decide on a useful zone or zones of essential interest, for example, accounting, banking and finance, business administration, computer science, economics, education, marketing,  mass communication et cetera.
2.  Next, pick a sub-region from the practical territory.  For example, a student who has an interest in human resources may pick a research topic on the hospital working environment or organizational behavior
3.  Look for the possible research topic in that sub-region.
4.  Familiarize yourself with the subject matter relating to the proposed project topic idea.
5.  Evaluate any provisional topic you pick precisely and fundamentally.  A student ought to have not less than three speculative topics in.  He ought to pick the topic which is most alluring to him or her among alternate topics having analyzed the upsides and downsides of every one of the case study.
6.  Finally, present the chosen topics to the supervisor for facilitating discourse, clarifications, and elaborations if it requires.


It is plainly making no sense to embark on a case study  you know almost nothing or nothing about.  Though, it can obviously be contended that the student can acquaint himself with the project topic idea over the span of the investigation or study.  But there are somewhere around two issues with this: firstly, he/she might not be able to defend it before the supervisor.  Secondly, he/she may discover later that the research topic is more troublesome than foreseen or that the required research project materials are not accessible.  He could even lose interest in the research work because of any of these unexpected challenges.  The accompanying criteria should along these lines be borne in the mind of the students:


Numerous students have amidst their research, surrendered or abandon their research project topic for another one since they didn't have enough managing interest for it, in the first instance.  For a few, they may have chosen it since it was proposed by the supervisor or some different people they couldn't state too.  They may have felt that dismissing the project topic at that point would have added up to being ungrateful on their part which could be viewed as an affront to the supervisor.  Whichever way, it is perilous to take a project topic you are not so much inspired by in light of the fact that when it gets extreme, your interest for the project topic is the thing that will support you more than some other things.  One of the most important parts of doing a research work is choosing a topic.  By choosing wisely, you can ensure that your research will go smoothly and that you will enjoy doing it when choosing a topic that you care about.  A topic is a broad area of interest, such as AfricanAmerican history or animal behavior.  One way to approach the search for a research topic is first to choose a general area of interest and then to focus on some part of it.  Make sure that you have a real reason for wanting to explore the topic.  Often the best project topics for research works are ones that are related to your own life or to the lives of people you know.  If you are already keeping a “writing ideas” list in your journal or in your writing portfolio, you can refer to that list for possible topics.  If you are not regularly listing your writing ideas, you might consider starting to do so now. 


What makes a project topic researchable is the point at which you can research solid information to answer the research questions.  A project topic that is researchable can be known to utilize available and scientific tools and techniques.  Likewise, a research work might be un-researchable not on the grounds that the pertinent information doesn't exist, but rather in light of the fact that the student doesn't approach them.  Your first step in writing a research work is the same as your first step in any writing task: select a suitable topic, preferably one you are convesant with.  Whether you are assigned a topic or choose your own, don’t rush off to the library or log onto the Internet right away.  A little preparation up front will save you a lot of time and possibly much grief later on.
     First of all, if you’re not sure of what your supervisor expects from you, clarify what is required of you. 
Next, consider what approach you might take in presenting your topic.  Does it lend itself to a comparison? Process? Cause or effect? If the topic is assigned, often the wording of the research will suggest how your supervisor wants you to develop it.  Deciding up front what kind of paper you are going to write will save you hours of work, both in the library and at your desk.
     When you’ve decided, at least tentatively, on the approach you’re going to take, you are ready to focus on the kind of information you need to look for in your research.  For example, if you’ve been asked to evaluate a contemporary Canadian novel, you won’t waste time discussing the history of the novel or its development since 1950.  You can restrict your investigation to sources that contain information relevant to your specific subject.
     Once you have an idea of the kind of information you need in order to develop your topic, it’s time to find the best sources you can. 


The possibility of the final year project alludes to what it will take the student to finish the research topic as far as the expense of the final year project, the monetary use, and the time allotment for the final year research.  Thusly, it is vital that the student from the beginning, gauge that he has everything necessary to finish the research project regarding fund and research materials, and furthermore that he will have the capacity to finish the final year research inside the time period allotted for it.  In the event that the response to this is negative, at that point he should forsake the project topic before setting out on it.


Plagiarism is presenting someone else’s ideas as your own.  It’s a form of stealing (the word comes from the Latin word plagiarius, which means “kidnapper”).  There have been famous cases of respected journalists and academics who have been accused of plagiarizing the articles or books they have written.  Suspected plagiarists who are found guilty often lose their jobs.  Sometimes the accusation alone is enough to compromise an author’s reputation and thus prevent him or her from continuing to work as a scholar or writer.
     Students who copy essays or parts of essays from source material, download them from the Internet, or pay someone else to write them are cheating.  And, in so doing, they commit a serious academic offence.  Sometimes, however, academic plagiarism is accidental.  It can result from careless note-taking or an incomplete understanding of the conventions of documentation.  It is not necessary to identify the sources of common knowledge (e. g. , Margaret Atwood is one of Canada’s best-known authors; British Columbia is Canada’s westernmost province) or proverbial sayings (e. g. , Love is blind), but when you are not sure whether to cite a source, it’s wise to err on the side of caution and provide documentation.  Statistics should always be cited because the meaning of numbers tends to change, depending on who is using them and for what purpose.
     If, after you have finished your first draft, you are not sure which ideas need documenting and which don’t, take your research notes and your outline to your supervisor and ask.  It’s better to ask before submitting a paper than to try to explain a problem afterward.  Asking saves you potential embarrassment as well as time.


1.    Even though your supervisor may be your only reader, think of your potential audience as the other students who are taking the course with you, those who took it in recent years, and those who will take it in the near future.  This way, you can count on a certain amount of shared knowledge.  For a course in economics, for example, you can assume your audience knows what the Phillips curve relationship is; a definition would be superfluous.  For a course in literature, you won’t need to inform your readers that Jonathan Swift was an 18th-century satirist.  Think of your readers as colleagues who want to see what conclusions you have reached and what evidence you have used to support them.
2.    Manage your time carefully.  Divide the work into a number of tasks, develop a schedule that leaves lots of time for revision, and stick to your schedule.
3.    Choose a topic that interests you.  Define it as precisely as you can before beginning your research, but be prepared to modify, adapt, and revise it as you research and write your paper.
4.    If you cannot find appropriate sources, ask a reference librarian for help.
5.    When making notes, always record the author, title, publication data, and page numbers of the source.  For electronic sources, note also the URL, the name of the database or site, the name of the institution or organization sponsoring the site, either the date of publication or the date the source was last revised, and the date you accessed the site.
6.    Use your source material to support your own ideas, not the other way around.
7.    Document your sources according to whatever style your supervisor prefers.
8.    Revise, edit, and proofread carefully.  If you omit this step, the hours and weeks you have spent on your assignment will be wasted, not rewarded.

« on: March 14, 2020, 08:14:28 AM »

A table of content in project composing is essentially the reflection of the project.  A table of content can be characterized as the nitty-gritty review of a project by which a writer layout the various headings, subheadings of conversation on project work and where or pages every one of this information can be gotten.  So for the simple route of pages on project work, it is prudent for research writers to outfit its readers with a table of content. 

A table of content is a guide for the readers and all things considered, it ought to be valuable, blunder free and directly to the focuses.  In the event that you simply set out as a beginner recorded as a hard copy your final year project as an undergrad and you are stressing over, how to build up a decent table of content for your project.  Indeed, stress no more since I am x-raying how one can build up a table of content for research project work.

Develop the research project work first:
To get a mistake free table of content, it is convenient that you work out the research project work first, to make certain of the final headings for each research review and furthermore the right numbering.  So one need to complete the research project work before composing the table of content.

Put finishing touches to the reveiw:
Put the fundamental editing work to the write up like legitimate numbering the pages and having suitable headings and revising every single vital mistake, so that on the off chance that you are physically making the table out of content, you wouldn’t omit or include what was already deleted or omitted

CheckSketch how the table of content will resemble:
It is important to have a review of your table of content before including it on your main project work, so feel free to have a sketch of your table of contents and make all the vital redresses and contributions before moving or utilizing it for the research project work.

Editing the table of content:
A decent table of content needs legitimate editing.  So it is relevant that following rules are adjusted *Create two sections on the page to demonstrate the headings on one side and the figures of pages where the headings are situated on the opposite side.  The title of the headings ought to be on the left while the quantity of the pages where the headings are situated on the right.  Compose subheadings underneath the featuring of each laid out heading.  *Use single line dispersing when composing and the text dimension ought to be '12'

Check for completeness:
The table of content when done ought to be reconsider to be certain that all that should finish it is set up.  Verify the spellings of each heading, subheading and that each heading or subheading compares with relating page or segment numbers in the correct section.

HOW TO DEVELOP A TABLE OF CONTENT FOR A RESEARCH PROJECT WORK - https://researchwap. com/post/how-to-develop-a-table-of-content-for-a-research-project-work

« on: March 10, 2020, 03:54:49 PM »


The growth of the use of the Internet, and in particular the World Wide Web, over the last 10 years has been phenomenal and impacted on nearly every area of life in developed societies.  One of the most important aspects of peoples’ lives is their physical living conditions and in Nigeria just like in many other countries.  Traditionally Nigeria has adopted new technology rapidly, with the relatively large population of over 170 million and the high demand for housing.  Internet use has followed this pattern with World Wide Web access now available to the vast majority of Nigerian homes.
The Internet is still seen as a fairly new tool by many people.  With respect to the current graphic-intensive state of the media (multi-media presentations) and encrypted e-commerce (secure on-line purchasing) used on the internet, this technology is very new (Birvin, 1999).  However, the backbone of the Internet has roots going all the way back to the Soviet Union’s launching of Sputnik in 1957.  In response (to Sputnik), US forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the following year, within the Department of Defense (DOD) to establish America's lead in science and technology applicable to the military.  Real estate listings were part of the fabric of the Internet.  Originally, entire Usenet message boards were reserved for listing homes, with eager homeowners looking to cut out the real estate commission which has been in operation in advanced countries (Rosen, 1996).  When the Internet started to boom, real estate practitioners got in on the game as well, adding their listings on their own sites.  Real estate services also started developing Internet platforms.  In 1996, LendingTree. com introduced their marketplace concept.  This was the first service offered for real estate that existed only in cyberspace.  Many other banks offering on-line loans already existed, but this showed the unique power of the Internet.  Today, sites offer a myriad of real estate services in an online environment all over the world.  While some of them have traditional brick and mortar operations, many of these new companies exist only over TCPIP (Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol) (Rosen, 1996).
The role of internet marketing in real estate has grown profoundly over the past few years.  In an industry that once used print media as its primary form of delivering the marketing message, there is now an urgent need to have transitioned to the internet in order to reach today's homebuyer.  An online presence is a vital component of a real estate professional's marketing strategy.  Because today's consumers want accurate information quickly and conveniently, real estate professionals must harness the features and capabilities of online marketing to meet these ever-increasing needs.  In this study, the researcher will provide information on the influence of online marketing on real estate business.
Real estate is an information-intensive business.  Agents connect buyers to sellers through control and dissemination of information.  Agents are valued for the information skills they bring to making both listings and sales.  Since houses are expensive, not easily describable and infrequently bought or sold, most individuals still feel the need for assistance with this transaction from a professional.  As well, these are all factors that tend to increase transactions costs (Williamson, 1981).  However, the use of online marketing in real estate business can be used to disintermediate the traditional agent and broker is of focal interest here, as it potentially threatens the traditional relationship between agent and home owner.  Disintermediation is the elimination or displacement of market intermediaries, enabling direct trade with buyers and consumers without agents (Wigand, 1997).
Real estate is a promising setting for studying online marketing because it is an information-intensive and information-driven industry; transaction-based, with high value and asset-specificity; market-intermediary (agents and brokers connect buyers and sellers rather than buying or selling themselves); and experiencing on-going information technology (IT) related changes through online marketing.  In an attempt to increase popularity, productivity and profitability, real estate agents and brokerage firms are using the Internet to deliver market information to consumers about the residential real estate market.  This study examines to what extent has online marketing influenced real estate business. 
The following are the objectives of this study:
To examine the influence of online marketing on real estate business.  To determine the effectiveness of online marketing in real estate business.  To identify the problems associated with online marketing in real estate business.
What is the influence of online marketing on real estate business? What is the effectiveness of online marketing in real estate business? What are the problems associated with online marketing in real estate business?
HO: Online marketing does not influence real estate business
HA: Online marketing
 does influence real estate business
The following are the significance of this study:
The result from this study will educate the general public on the rudiments of online marketing and especially how it can influence the real estate business.  This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
This study on the influence of online marketing on real estate business will cover the level of online marketing in Nigeria especially in the real estate development sector.  It will also cover the online business activities of real estate agents in Nigeria.
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work.  This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
Bivins R.  (1999): New Houston Realty Firm Has Success Melding Internet, Standard Approach, Knight-Ridder/Tribune Businesss News November 7 1999.
Rosen. ,(1996) Virtual Reality Real Estate-Agents Face Extinction in an Information Rich Century 21, Dallas Observer, January 18,1996, pg. 6
Wigand, R.  T. , Picot, A.  and Reichwald, R.  (1997).  Information, Organization and Management: Expanding Markets and Corporate Boundaries.  Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.
Williamson, O.  E.  (1981).  The economics of organization: The transaction cost approach.  American Journal of Sociology, 87(3), 548–577.

« on: February 17, 2020, 02:00:27 PM »

Water is an essential natural resource required by all living organisms.  However among these living organisms, human beings tend to use water most for the purposes of drinking, personal, domestic, industrial and recreational uses (Igbeneghu and Lamikanra 2014).  Nigeria like other developing nations is faced with problems of potable water supply for its estimated 160 million citizens (Adesiji 2013).  As a result of this and other factors, packaged drinking water has been used as alternative drinking water source (Oyedeji et al.  2010).  Packaged drinking water is defined as water packaged in cans, plastic sachets and pouches for the main purpose of consumption (Warburton 1993).  It is mostly common in low socio economic countries has means of salvaging scarce potable, safe water and to generate income, yet, various studies have shown that some packaged drinking water may not be safe for drinking due to presence of pathogens (Ahmed et al.  2013; Obiri-Danso et al.  2003).
According to Oyedeji et al.  (2010), water borne diseases are one of the major public health related problems in developing countries like Nigeria.  The ever increasing demand, sale and indiscriminate consumption of packaged drinking water in Nigeria, therefore, poses significant public health risks to the citizens especially individuals with compromised immune systems (Mgbakor et al.  2011).  Most producers of packaged drinking water in Nigeria obtain their raw water mostly from sources such as local, municipal piped water or well water and therefore, do not follow specified standards due to lack of the appropriate drinking water technology (Oluyege et al.  2014).
Osun State Water Corporation  (OSWC),  and  the  Rural Water  Environmental  Sanitation Agency  (RUWESA)  are  inadequate for  the  growing  population  and  at  best epileptic in most Osogbo communities  (OSWC,  2008).   As  a consequence  of  pipe  borne  water shortage,  the  Osun State residents depend  on  water  from boreholes,  hand-dug  wells  and  water vended  in  sachets.   From  a  public health  perspective,  there  is  a  need  to ascertain  the  quality  of  water accessible  to  the residents to  avoid  or  reduce  incidence of  contaminated  water-related  health hazards.   Based  on  this,  the  study  was undertaken  to  assess  the  physical, chemical, and bacteriological properties  of  of packaged water used by  the  students residents of  Osun  State.   The  study  is relevant  in  assuring  whether  the quality  of  the packaged water meet the regulatory  standards because portable water is essential to life.
1. 2 Problem Statement.
Despite various studies by researchers, there is no information on prevailing pathogens.  This study was, therefore, carried out to compile nationally and internationally published articles in order to summarize and compare occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria and potential water borne bacterial pathogens in packaged drinking water sold in Osun state.
So also analyse the physiochemical properties of the packaged water to check if they conform with the standard to ensure their safety.
1. 3 Objectives of the Study
The major objective of the study is the physiochemical and microbial analysis of water sold in Osun State.
1. 4 Research Questions
(1) what are the various packaged water sold in Osun state?
(2) Is there any physical proof to show they are portable water?
(3) why the need to perform physiochemical and microbial analysis of water sold in Osun state?
1. 5 Significance of the study
This study gives a clear insight into the physiochemical and microbial analysis of water sold in Osun state.  The findings and recommendations of these research will enlighten consumers on how safe the water samples are and may also help the concerned regulatory bodies on the safety of the water sold in Osun state.
1. 6 Scope of the study
This research focuses on the physiochemical and microbial analysis of packaged water sold in Osun state.
1. 7 Limitations of the study
This study was conducted on selected samples of water sold in Osun State.
Adesiji AR.  Microbiological quality of packaged drinking water brands marketed in Minna metropolis, North Central Nigeria.  Nig J Technolog Res.  2013;7(1):1–7.
Ahmed W, Yusuf R, Hasan I, Ashraf W, Goonetilleke A, Toze S, Gardner T.  Fecal indicators and bacterial pathogens in bottled water from Dhaka, Bangladesh.  Braz J Microbiol.  2013;44(1):97–103.  doi: 10. 1590/S1517-83822013005000026.  [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
Igbeneghu OA, Lamikanra A.  The bacteriological quality of different brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife, south-western Nigeria.  BMC Res Notes.  2014;7(1):859.  doi: 10. 1186/1756-0500-7-859.  [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
Korzeniewska E, Filipkowska Z, Zarnoch D, Tworus K.  Survival of Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila in non-carbonated mineral water.  Polish J Microbiol.  2005;54:35–40.  [PubMed]
Mgbakor C, Ojiegbe G, Okonko IO, Odu NN, Alli JA, Nwanze JC, Onoh CC.  Bacteriological evaluation of some sachet water on sales in Owerri metropolis, Imo State.  Nigeria Mal J Microbiol.  2011;7(4):217–225.
NIS .  Nigerian standard for drinking water quality.  Microbiological limits.  Abuja: Standard Organization of Nigeria; 2007.
Obiri-Danso K, Okore-Hanson A, Jones K.  The microbiological quality of drinking water sold on the streets in Kumasi.  Ghana Lett Appl Microbiol.  2003;37(4):334–339.  doi: 10. 1046/j. 1472-765X. 2003. 01403. x.  [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
Oluyege J, Olowomofe T, Abiodun O.  Microbial contamination of packaged drinking water in Ado-Ekiti metropolis, south western Nigeria.  Am J Res Com.  2014;2(10):231–246.
Oyedeji O, Olutiola P, Moninuola M.  Microbiological quality of packaged drinking water brands marketed in Ibadan metropolis and Ile-Ife city in South Western Nigeria.  Afr J Micro Res.  2010;4(1):096–102.
Venkatesan KD, Balaji M, Victor K.  Microbiological analysis of packaged drinking water sold in Chennai.  Int J Med Sci Public Health.  2014;3(4):472–476.  doi: 10. 5455/ijmsph. 2014. 150220143.  [Cross Ref]
Warburton DW.  A review of the microbiological quality of bottled water sold in Canada.  Part 2.  The need for more stringent standards and regulations.  Can J Microbiol.  1993;39(2):158–168.  doi: 10. 1139/m93-022.  [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

« on: February 08, 2020, 09:31:54 AM »

Land use regulations and controls are used to restrict the rights of private land holders in the use of land.  The regulations are used to protect public interest in the use of private land.  The regulations stem from the need to provide public amenities, to increase the efficiency of land-use, to limit urban sprawl and unnecessary encroachment on agricultural land, and to achieve economies of scale and least-cost production of public services (Courtney, 1983).   The regulations are also used to ensure the availability of land to all groups, and to ensure that the benefits of development go to the community as a whole.
Today, if you buy land in Nigeria and you do not have the Certificate of Occupancy (C of O) from the government, it is not yours, all you have is a lease, that is, you never have a freehold.  You cannot even have access to any loan or do anything tangible if you do not have fund of your own, not even the National Housing Fund which was set up by the government to render such assistance.  Yet the Certificate of Occupancy is even more difficult than getting the land itself.  All efforts by some State Governments especially the Lagos State government to ease the procedure and collection have been described as mere gimmicks.  We have heard series of cases where Governors wield their powers to revoke legally acquired rights of occupancy in the interest of the public, whereas it was obvious that they were done on political reasons especially against oppositions.  The former President of the federation who was the author of the Act when it was promulgated during his first military administration had to reassure Nigerians on 26th of September 2001 in Abuja that “no government owns land” and that “land belongs to the people”.  This statement was made when he was condemning the excesses of the Governors.  As stated above, since it is a known philosophy that laws are made by men for men and are operated, implemented and enforced by human beings through various legal institutions, our concern is how the Act has affected sustainable housing development schemes in Nigeria.
Several controversies that were created by the Act have been well documented in different reactions and write-ups (Mabogunje (2007; 2011) and Aluko (2007; 2009; 2010) dealt excessively on the gory state of affairs about the housing situations in Nigeria in general and how it could be sustained.  In this research study, we try to examine the effects that the Land Use Act has had on sustainable housing provision in Nigeria.  Since one of the major areas of the Act is to control future uses and open new land for the needs of Nigeria’s growing population especially in urban areas, yet there is still the outcry of the people to affordable housing provision.  In Lagos State for example, the municipalities (local governments) have no say in the issue of Certificate of Occupancy as all lands in the State has been declared urban and are all under the control of the governor.  Whereas in the commencement of the Land Use Act 1978 No.  6 on 29th March, 1978, it was stated that “whereas it is in the public interest that the rights of all Nigerians to the land of Nigeria be asserted and preserved by law”.  And that all lands comprised in the territory of each State in the Federation are hereby vested in the Governor of the Stat.  The Act also provides that “all land in urban areas shall be under the control and management of the Governor of each State”.
1. 2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The concern of the researcher in this study is not really another criticism of the Act but an in-depth evaluation of how it has achieved its aim in the mass provision of housing to the people.  However the hope of the Nigerian masses lies in the Act with the current wave of high cost of acquisition of land.  It should be noted that one of the cogent reasons why the Act came into existence was because of the nature of trusteeship of land in the past.  It was difficult for anyone to get access to land.  It is important for the researcher to examine if the Act has made it easy for Nigerians to get land for housing development.  Ownership of a house starts from the acquisition of a piece of land.  That is to say the intending house owner must first of all have access to land.  In urban areas access to land is not quite easy and that is why one of the objectives of the Land Use Act is to ensure that land is made available promptly to all those who need it in the interest of the economy.  Having regards to the fact that housing is one of the best indicators of a person’s standard of living and of his place in the society, it also serves as a place in which man seeks shelter, comfort, security and dignity among other things, it is important to examine the effect of Land use Act of sustainable housing development in Nigeria. 
1. 3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The following are the objectives of this study:
To examine the effect of land use acts on sustainable housing development in Nigeria.  To investigate the influence of land use act on ease of land access by Nigerians.  To identify the factors limiting sustainable housing development in Nigeria.
What is the effect of land use acts on sustainable housing development in Nigeria? What is the influence of land use act on ease of land access by Nigerians? What are the factors limiting sustainable housing development in Nigeria?
1. 5   HYPOTHESIS HO: Land use act has no significant effect on sustainable housing development in Nigeria HA: Land use act has significant effect on sustainable housing development in Nigeria
1. 6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: The following are the significance of this study:
Findings from this study will educate the general public, government, students on the state of housing development in Nigeria and also enlighten them on land use act and its impact on sustainable housing development in Nigeria.  This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied, it will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
1. 7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY This study on the effect of land use act on sustainable housing development in Nigeria will cover all the existing housing development and schemes by government and how the land use act has affected the ownership of land for housing development.
LIMITATION OF STUDY: Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work.  This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work. 1. 8   DEFINITION OF TERMS Housing: houses and flats considered collectively.  Land: the part of the earth's surface that is not covered by water.  Development: an event constituting a new stage in a changing situation.
REFERENCES Aluko, Ola.  (2007).  Renal Sub-sector and Housing Delivery System in Nigeria a paper presented at the National Workshop on Private Sector Driven Housing Delivery; Issues, Constraints, Challenges and Prospects organized by University of Lagos, Department of Estate Management in collaboration with Real Estate Developers Association of Nigeria (REDAN), at Main Auditorium, University of Lagos, between (July 30-31).  Aluko, Ola.  (2009).  The role of the professionals in the built environment, in Aluko, Ola Editor (Eds. ), Introductory Course in Environmental Sciences.  Ibadan: Kins.  Aluko, Ola.  (2010).  Housing Provision and Development in Nigeria: The Dashed Hope of the poor, paper presented at the National Conference and Exhibition on Challenges of Sheller and Environment for Nigeria in the coming Decades (CEENACON) organized by College of Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Imo State University, Owerri (April 6-9).  Courtney, N.  (1983).  Cases and Materials on Nigerian Land Law (pp.  1 - 49).  Mabochi Books.  Mabogunje A.  L.  (2007).  Developing Mega Cities in Developing Countries, being text of a lecture delivered at a Colloquim organized by the 2007 Graduating Class, Department of Geography, University of Lagos on Wednesday (September 12).  Mabogunje, Akin L.  (2011).  Promoting Good Governance: What Can We, The People, Do? Paper presented at 4th Anniversary Public Lecture of the splash 105. 5 FM, Ibadan on Friday (July 8).

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« on: January 31, 2020, 10:34:13 AM »

Real estate has continued to play a significant role in man’s evolution.  It is not a coincidence that food, shelter and clothing believed to be the three essentials that sustain mankind, also have some linkage to land.  Food grows out of land while shelter is affixed to it, and man’s clothing is made largely from what grows out of land.  Indeed, whether in ancient times or today’s modern system, land constitutes a significant index for man’s wealth, and as economic activities have assumed more sophistication over time, land has continued to play a central role in their development (Lewis , 1994).  There is hardly any business venture that does not require to be supported by some form of real estate: from the small business that requires real estate as offices from where its business can be organized, to the major venture that needs it for its factory.
Consequently, through some very robust and well thought out land policies comprehensively address challenges that are encounter in the real estate sector.  This is not exactly the situation here in Nigeria and the result is that there is a myriad of problems in the real estate sector (Adewale, 2000).  In the course of this study, the researcher will provide an overview of real estate investments in Nigeria and its associated challenges.
Real estate investment is intrinsically connected to the economic development and well being of any nation, thereby necessitating some intervention by prudent governments.  Such interventions vary in degrees, depending on the nation.  In Nigeria, individual could rarely lay claim to any part of it as owner and therefore could not alienate it without the consent of the head.  Proper financing is all-important to successful property/real estate investment and development.  Various forms of finance on varying terms from diverse investing agencies are available to the property/real estate market.  The principal field where various forms of investment finance are employed is that of development where every loan has to be specially tailored for an individual scheme and the particular stages within the scheme.  Since real estate and property development in particular involves huge capital expenditure, finance is therefore an essential input, the nature of which is to provide capital to enable the enterprise operate commercially (Ratcliff, 1999).  The cost and availability of finance for real estate development can influence the viability of such project.  It is necessary to examine the nature of real estate investment in Nigeria with a view of finding solutions to the associated challenges.
1. 2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM In recent times, research on real estate investment has been on the front burner has it is the major source of housing for man.  In the hierarchy of man’s needs, housing has been ranked second and as a result of this; housing provision has become a paramount cornerstone of the policies of various governments both at federal and state levels since independence in Nigeria.  The consequences of the rapid rate of urbanization are most visible in the rapid deterioration of urban housing resulting in urban housing poverty especially as there is no proportionate increase in the number of housing stocks.  .  During the period of economic boom in the 1970s in Nigeria, there was surplus capital, the economic climate then was favorable for the development of real estate and the prospect of gain was over blown and so were the rate of development.  Due to the recent drop in the prices of crude oil world wide and corruption, government has not been able to invest in real estate.  Overpopulation and urbanization has led to massive increase in property development.  Financial houses readily obliged developers’ loans, as they perceived minimum risks.  Since real estate development requires huge capital outlay, there is always the need for real estate developer to source for fund.  However, this study will examine the scope of real estate in Nigeria and its associated challenges with a view of making useful suggestions on the way forward for real estate in Nigeria.
1. 3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The following are the objectives of this study:
To provide an overview of real estate investment in Nigeria.  To examine the challenges associated with real estate investment in Nigeria.  To identify the way forward for real estate in Nigeria.
What is the level of real estate investment in Nigeria? What are the challenges associated with real estate investment in Nigeria? What is the way forward for real estate in Nigeria?
1. 5   HYPOTHESIS HO: Real estate investment has no challenges in Nigeria.  HA: Real estate investment has several challenges in Nigeria.
1. 6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The following are the significance of this study:
The findings from this study will educate the general public on the benefit of real estate investment and its associated challenges which will form the basis for guidance in decision making.  This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
1. 7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY This study on real estate investment and its associated challenges in Nigeria will cover the extent of real estate investment in Nigeria looking at the factors that has facilitated or hindered it.  It will also cover the challenges associated with real estate investment in Nigeria. LIMITATION OF STUDYFinancial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work.  This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work. 1. 8   DEFINITION OF TERMS Investment: an investment is a monetary asset purchased with the idea that the asset will provide income in the future or appreciate and be sold at a higher price.  Real estate: property consisting of land or buildings. REFERENCES Adewale, J. R.  2000: Real Estate Investment Analysis.  Lexington Books.  Lewis, M. G.  (1994): When Real Estate Becomes Big Business: Mergers, Acquisitions and Joint Ventures.  Cahners Publishing.  Ratcliff, R. U.  (1999): Real Estate Analysis.  McGraw Hill, New York.

« on: January 28, 2020, 05:24:47 PM »

Land Reform generally involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership.  It may consist of government initiated or government backed approach to property redistribution of land as in the case of Nigeria, an outright transfer of ownership of land from the citizens to the state.  The common characteristic of land reforms is usually the modification or the replacement of existing institutional arrangements governing possession, use and title.  Thus, while land reform may be radical in nature such as large scale confiscation and transfers of land from one group to another or from one group to the state, it can also be less drastic and conciliatory in nature such as less painful transfers of land to the state and regulatory reforms aimed at improving land administration (Dale, 2007).
Land is perhaps the single most important natural resource in the sense that it affects every aspect of a people’s live; their food, clothing, and shelter.  It is the base for producing raw material for the manufacturing industry.  It is an important resource.  No nation-city or rural area can survive as an entity without it.  Thus, every person in a nation – the banker, the industrialist, the labourer, the educator, the student, the planner, the farmer- has a vital stake in the country’s land problems and its proper utilization (Acquaye, 1976).
The Land Reform committee in Nigeria is aimed towards enabling the states to be effective managers of land.  It is aimed to provide a systematic cadastral survey of land in the entire federation (a political entity called Nigeria).  The Term of Reference makes it an essential body to assist both states and local government to carry out the cadastre survey and codify the possessory rights of vast majority of the people access to land and landowners.  The Term of Reference necessitate the body to collaborate and provide technical assistance to state and local government in undertaking cadastral survey and to ensure the demarcation of land boundaries and title holdings are demarcated in such a way that communities, hamlets, villages, towns etc are recognized.  It was also saddled with the responsibility of encouraging and assisting states and local government to establish adjudication mechanism for land ownership conflict resolution and to make recommendation for mechanism for valuation in both rural and urban areas.
Security of tenure and land rights of citizens is an important foundation for economic development.  For many of these, land titles are the main sources of collateralization for obtaining credit from informal and established financial institutions.  Consequently, securing land rights and land titles is particularly relevant for all socio‐economic classes in the nation’s economy but especially to the farmers whose pervasive poverty to date derives from not having definitive property rights appropriate to a market economy.  Furthermore, fees and taxes on such landed properties are very important sources of revenue for governments particularly at the State and Local Government levels.  A national programme that thus sets out to enhance and secure the property rights of all groups in the society can only end up creating a economic empowerment.  Funding Land Reform programme should therefore be a national effort to be borne by all three tiers of government in proportion to their capabilities (Mabogunje, 2007).
For a country striving to be one of the twenty largest economies in the world by the year 2020, the situation with respect to land rights and transactions in land still leaves very much to be desired.  The World Band publication on “Doing Business in Nigeria 2010” rated Nigeria 178th out of 183 economies in respect of difficulties of registering properties in the country.  Mabogunje (2007) attributed this to the following reason “a large share of land in the country is not formally registered [whilst] informal titles cannot be used as security in obtaining loans which limits financing opportunities for businesses” especially small and medium‐size enterprises.  If Nigeria is to meet the challenges of competing effectively in an increasingly globalizing world, it is thus imperative that it gives very urgent and sustained attention to promoting its land reform program in all of its ramifications to facilitate property development.
1. 2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Land Titling and Registration is essential for economic development of a Nation.  The Nigerian nation had had a multiplicity of land tenure system until the 1978 Land Use Act which harmonized all the systems.  The land use pattern in Nigeria estimated arable land to be about 33% of the total land area, permanent pastures cover 44%, permanent crops cover 3%, forest and woodlands 12%, and others 8%.  Thus land is still the main asset of the rural Nigerians where over 80% are peasant farmers; however this asset has not been fully utilized for economic empowerment because they do not have proper records and titles that can be used as collateral to raise capital.  It is in an attempt to economically empower the vast majority of Nigerians, who are rural dwellers, by turning their land holdings to economic capital, that the current Federal Government of Nigeria initiated the Land Reform Agenda.  However, the researcher is providing an overview of land reforms in Nigeria considering the issues and prospects.  1. 3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The following are the objectives of this study:
To provide an overview on the issues of land reforms in Nigeria.  To examine the problems of land reforms in Nigeria.  To analyze the solution to the problems of land reform in Nigeria.
What are the issues of land reforms in Nigeria? What are the problems of land reforms in Nigeria? What are the solutions to the problems of land reform in Nigeria?
1. 6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The following are the significance of this study:
Outcome of this study will educate the general public and students on the issues, problems and solutions of land reforms in Nigeria with a view of identifying the inadequacies.  This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied, it will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
1. 7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY This study on land reforms in Nigeria will cover all the issues and problems of land reform in Nigeria.  It will cover the activities of the regulatory framework and the accessibility of land to Nigerians for use. LIMITATION OF STUDYFinancial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work.  This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work. 1. 8   DEFINITION OF TERMS Reforms: make changes in (something, especially an institution or practice) in order to improve it.  Land: the part of the earth's surface that is not covered by water. REFERENCES Mabogunje, A. L.  (2007).  Development as Societal Transformation and Empowerment.  Lecture Delivered at the Retreat of the People’s Democratic Party, Abuja, January 8.  Dale, Peter.  2007.  “Good Land Administration – It’s Role in the Economic Development” Keynote Speech on Land Administration in Transition International Workshop, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.  June 27 -29.  Solomon, A. O.  (1991): Title to land in Nigeria; An inaugural Lecture delivered at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, On June 1991.  Osei-Bonsu.  S. N.  (1983): Alternative Approaches and strategies to Rural Development Studies Vol.  3 Nos.  1 page 31-32. 

« on: January 27, 2020, 03:47:28 PM »

The Real Estate sector offers a great potential source of growth for Nigeria.  Until now, the understanding of its composition and growth has been somewhat limited to its required use in Nigerian national accounts.  Development is a general word that encompasses all aspects of human life, segments and disciplines, which give direction to the state of an economy.  Globally, real estate sector is one of the most profitable ventures of every economy and one of the indices of measuring economic growth of a society.  It is a sector that mirrors the economic viability and sustainability of an economy and its poverty level.  Though there was no accurate data about housing shortage in Nigeria, it was however estimated that the shortage has risen to over 17 million (Ebie, 2005).  Successive governments over the years have attempted to resolve these shortages with various policies but rather than reducing, the shortages kept increasing year in year out.
According to Ajanlekoko, 2001, the Federal housing agencies located in each state of the federation, were statutorily created to execute public housing programmes for each state of the federation based on the formulated housing policies.  Specifically they are to undertake the development of estates by acquiring, developing, holding, managing, selling, leasing or letting any property movable or unmovable in their respective states; provide a home ownership saving scheme in respect of any housing estate or building owned, constructed and managed by them with a view to enabling members of the public purchase or build their own houses; provide sites and services scheme for residential, commercial and industrial purposes for the people of their respective states; construct and maintain modern dwelling houses at reasonable costs for sales to members of the public, undertake the construction of offices, commercial and industrial buildings for letting out to members of the public among other things, engage in other investment activities and opportunities as may be determined by the respective state governments.  If there has been effective implementation of housing policies, all these would have significantly benefitted the masses and above all contributed to the growth of the nation’s economy as a result of profit made from sales and rents.  Unfortunately however, most of the state housing agencies are under-utilized and have been rendered redundant and could hardly carry out their primary responsibility as elaborated in the respective laws setting up these agencies (Zubairu, 2001).  Basically, the problems of housing delivery in Nigeria are rooted in three major factors namely lack of finance, escalating cost of building materials and infrastructural development cost.
These three problems are however peculiar to all housing delivery agencies and somewhat make affordable and mass housing difficult and has however reduced the contribution of the real estate sectorto the nation’s economy.
1. 2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Today in Nigeria, most of the housing corporations and the housing estates built by the previous governments merely exist by names (Mailafia, 2005).  In some states, housing corporation staffs who are spe...ts in real estate development and management are rendered irrelevant in their special field while state ministries have taken over construction and in some states they have been merged with the ministries.  This situation has relegated housing development to the background and hardly can we see any government owned housing unlike in the second republic.  These has drastically affected the amount of income generated though the real estate sector.  However, private partnership participation has enable more person to benefit from the business to improve their personal standard of living.  However, the researcher is examining the impact of the real estate sector on the economy growth of Nigeria. 1. 3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The following are the objectives of this study:
To examine the impact of the real estate sector on the growth of Nigeria’s economy.  To identify the factors limiting development of the real estate sector in Nigeria.  To determine how the real estate sector can contribute massively to the economic development of Nigeria.
What is the impact of the real estate sector on the growth of Nigeria’s economy? What are the factors limiting development of the real estate sector in Nigeria? How can real estate sector contribute massively to the economic development of Nigeria?
1. 5   HYPOTHESIS HO: Real estate sector has not contributed to the economic growth of Nigeria.  HA: Real estate sector has contributed to the economic growth of Nigeria. 1. 6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The following are the significance of this study:
Findings from this study will be a useful guide for the policy makers and the government of the day on how real estate sector can contribute to the nations development and how the housing policies can be implemented effectively to boost economic growth.  This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
1. 7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The scope of this study on the impact of the real estate sector on the growth of Nigeria’s economy will cover the structure and activities of real estate in Nigeria and its contribution to the nation’s economy. LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).  Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work.  This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.   

« on: January 23, 2020, 05:33:27 PM »

Housing has been universally recognized as one of the most essential necessities of human life and is a major economic asset in every nation.  Adequate housing provides the foundation for stable communities and social inclusion (Oladapo, 2006).  Gilbertson et al.  (2008) have observed that there is a significant association between housing conditions and physical and mental health of an individual.  People’s right to shelter is thus a basic one and the provision of decent housing to all requiring them should be the hallmark of every civilized society and one of the criteria for gauging development.  However, the provision of adequate housing in Nigeria and other developing nations alike still remains one of the most intractable challenges facing human and national development.
Previous attempts by all stakeholders, including government agencies, planners and developers to provide necessary recipe for solving the housing problem have yielded little or no success.  Teufic and Ural (1978) Ogundele (1989) Agbola (1987) Okpala and Onibokun (1986) recognized finance as part of housing problems but ranked land and building materials higher.  Their findings influenced government housing policies and subsequent establishment of some relevant programmes and institutions like the Site and Service Programme and the National Institute of Road and Building Research.  The drought of information and working knowledge of housing finance operation is a major problem today.  In a tight money market, housing is the first area to suffer, since neither the builder nor the consumer can readily obtain finance for housing.  Actually, many builders have difficulty obtaining capital for their projects even in normal times.  Two of these problems – the high interest rates that contribute to the high cost of housing and the difficulty in obtaining capital for home construction.  According to Onabule (1996) 245 Primary Mortgage Institutions were established under the NHP within 1991-1996.  Unfortunately, only 54 are now operating, mainly in South West part of the country and Abuja.  According to Abiodun (1999), National Housing Fund collected about 4 billion naira from the Mandatory Saving Scheme.  Out of N300 million loan approved by FMBN, only N100million was advanced.
According to Arilesere (1997), Abiodun (2000) and Okupe et al (2000), the history of housing finance in Nigeria had been an appalling one.  The sudden leap from Agro-based to Petro-Naira based economy did not help matters.  The assertion that “money was not our problem but how to spend it” accredited to one of our Heads of state, is a summary of a Nation that lacked focus in the formative years.  This situation together with unprecedented population growth has remained unchecked ever since.
The Housing Sector plays a more critical role in a country’s welfare than is always recognized, as it directly affects not only the well-being of the citizenry, but also the performance of other sectors of the economy.  Adequate housing provision has since the early 1970s consequently engaged the attention of most countries, especially the developing ones, for a number of reasons.  First, it is one of the three most important basic needs of mankind– the others being food and clothing.  Second, housing is a very important durable consumer item, which impacts positively on productivity, as decent housing significantly increases workers’ health and well being, and consequently, growth.  Third, it is one of the indices for measuring the standard of living of people across societies.  Consequently, programmes of assistance in the areas of finance, provision of infrastructure and research have been designed by governments to enhance its adequate housing delivery.  The focus on finance has, however, been very prominent for obvious reasons.  This is because housing provision requires huge capital outlay, which is often beyond the capacity of the medium income/low income groups.
A major area of concern has been housing financing, which has often been fingered as one of the most formidable constraints in the housing sector.  It is in recognition of the critical importance of finance in housing delivery that the researcher is examining housing financing in Nigeria; issues and solutions.
1. 2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The problem of housing has become an every day discussion in all quarters of the public and private services of the developing countries of Africa especially in Nigeria which is being focused upon in this study.  It has become increasingly glaring that most of the urban population in Nigeria live in dehumanizing housing environment while those that have access to average housing do so at abnormal cost.  According to Onibokun (1986), Nubi (1991), rent in major cities of Nigeria is about 60% of an average workers disposable income.  Ekweme (1979), Iyagba et al (1998) explained that the rate of demand for new houses was in part predicated on the rate of formation of new houses and in part on the rate of replacement of old housing stock.  With this challenges of high cost of house financing in the building sector, the researcher will provide an overview of housing finance in relation to the issues and challenges therein in this study.  1. 3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The following are the objectives of this study:
To examine the issues related to housing finance in Nigeria.  To identify the solution to the issues of housing finance in Nigeria.  To ascertain the level of housing finance by the Nigerian government.
What are the issues related to housing finance in Nigeria? What is the solution to the issues of housing finance in Nigeria? What is the level of Nigerian government involvement in housing finance?
1. 6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The following are the significance of this study:
This outcome of this study will enlighten the general public on the issues of housing finance as it is widely known that the capital involved in housing development is very huge, this study will educate on strategies that can be adopted in executing housing project with minimal financial problems.  The outcome of this study will also sensitize the policy makers on the need to make good housing policies and the government of the day on the need to implement the policies by investing massively in housing development especially in the urban area to meet the accommodation needs of the citizens.  This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
1. 7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY This study on issues and solutions to housing finance in Nigeriawill cover the level of housing development in Nigeria with clear identification of housing problems.  It will also cover the level of government investment in housing through the mortgage institutions. LIMITATION OF STUDYFinancial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work.  This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work. REFERENCES Onibokun, P.  (1985).  Housing in Nigeria.  Ibadan University Press.  Abiodun A.  (1999): Housing Finance under National Housing Fund: An appraisal.  Paper presented at the General Meeting of the Nigeria Institute of Town Planning.  Agboola T.  (2000): Housing, Poverty and Environment – The Nigerian situation.  A seminar Paper presented at a workshop on Effective approach to Housing delivery In Nigeria.  Organized by the Nigerian Institute of Building, Ibadan, Nigeria Arilesere D.  (1997): Housing Finance in Nigeria: A paper presented during NIOB Organized workshop on Affordable Housing.  Lagos.  Okupe L.  (2000): The Role of Private Sector in Housing Delivery in Nigeria; A seminar paper on: Effective Approach to Housing Delivery in Nigeria, Organized By Nigerian Institute of Building, Ibadan.  Onabule G.  (1996): Understanding the role of NHF and Pry.  Mortgage Institution in Housing Finance: Paper presented at the Housing Policy Council Seminar on the Implementation of National Housing Policy.  Abeokuta.  Nubi, T. O.  (2002).  Financing Low Income Housing in Nigeria Cities: Need for Paradigm Shi.  Proceeding of the Faculty of Environmental Design Conference O. A. U.  Ile Ife, 340 -345.  Iyagba R.  and Asumo O.  (1997) Housing Crisis in Nigeria Urban and Rural area.  A challenge to the construction industry and technology.  The Lagos Journal of Environmental Studies Agboola T.  (2000) Housing, Poverty and Environment – The Nigerian situation.  A seminar Paper presented at a workshop on Effective approach to Housing delivery In Nigeria.  Organized by the Nigerian Institute of Building.  Ibadan, Nigeria.

« on: January 21, 2020, 05:07:15 PM »

Water is indispensable for life, but its availability at a sustainable quality and quantity is threatened by many factors, of which climate plays a leading role (IPCC, 1995).  Groundwater is the major source of drinking water in Africa and has a rapidly expanding role in irrigation to combat growing food insecurity.  This module deals with both the impact of climate change on groundwater resources, It is important to recall the global extent of climate change, and to consider the impacts on the scale of the global hydrologic cycle.
Of Africa’s population of 1 billion, roughly 60% live in rural areas.  Around 80% of them rely on groundwater-based community or household supplies for domestic and other water needs (WHO/UNICEF, 2008).
Currently there are more than 300 million people in Africa without access to safe drinking water, many of whom are amongst the poorest and most vulnerable in the world (MacDonald, A. ; Bonsor, H. C. ; Dochartaigh, B. E. O. ; Taylor, R. ,, 2012).  Climate variability and change influences groundwater systems both directly through replenishment by recharge and indirectly through changes in groundwater use.  These impacts can be modified by human activity such as land-use change (Taylor, Nature Climate change, 2013).
Climate change is “an altered state of the climate that can be identified by change in the mean and/or variability of its properties and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer”.  It may be due to “natural internal processes or external forcing, or to persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use” (IPCC, 2007).
Climate change affects water resources around the world in generally unknown ways.  Potential impacts of climate change on surface water particularly projected regional climate patterns and trends (i. e. , climate variability and change) have been studied in some detail.  Yet, little is known about how subsurface waters will respond to climate change coupled with human activities
We refer to all subsurface water as ‘‘groundwater’’, including soil water and unconfined and confined aquifer waters.  Distinctions can be made between these components of groundwater, noting interactions between them and surface water.
The challenges of understanding climate-change impact on groundwater are unprecedented because climate change may affect hydrogeological processes and groundwater resources directly and indirectly (Allen, D.  M. , Mackie, D.  C. , Wei, M. , 2004).  In ways that have not been explored sufficiently
Observational data and climate predictions provide abundant evidence that freshwater resources (both surface and groundwater resources) are vulnerable and have the potential to be strongly affected by climate change, with wide-ranging consequences for society and ecosystems (Calow, R. ; MacDonald, A, 2009).
Today, climate change may account for approximately 20% of projected increases in water scarcity globally (Bouraoui, F. , Vachaud, G. , Li, L.  Z.  X. , Le Treut, H,, Chen, T. , 1999).
Thus, there is a need to evaluate and understand climatic variability over the long term to better plan and manage groundwater resources well into the future, while taking into consideration the increasing stresses on those resources from population growth and industrial, agricultural, and ecological needs (Warner, S. D. , 2007).
In this project we appraise the state of the science of global change related to all components of groundwater.  Scientific issues and methods are placed in the context of global programs aimed at assessment of groundwater resources and adaptation to climate change.  The current emphasis is on regional case studies with the potential for global analogues to inform decisions where detailed studies are not presently feasible.  In this synthesis of results to date, we provide the type of soft information needed to generalize scientific knowledge and the controlling factors specific to each case study.
In recent decades, a wide array of scientific research has been carried out to better understand how water resources might respond to global change.  However, research has been focused dominantly on surface-water systems, due to their visibility, accessibility and more obvious recognition of surface waters being affected by global change.  Only recently, water resources managers and politicians are recognizing the important role played by groundwater resources in meet the demands for drinking water, agricultural and industrial activities, and sustaining ecosystems, as well as in the adaptation to and mitigation of the impacts of climate change and coupled human activities.
These changes in global climate are expected to affect the hydrological cycle, altering surface-water levels and groundwater recharge to aquifers with various other associated impacts on natural ecosystems and human activities.  Although the most noticeable impacts of climate change could be changes in surface water levels and quality there are potential effects on the quantity and quality of groundwater
This research I believe will ultimately save a lot of time especially when people do not have to spend money in carrying out agricultural practice or study purpose
1. 3 AIM
The aim of the work is to determine the impact of climate change on groundwater by studying Climate parameters of the soil and atmosphere.
a)   To generate an hourly record of soil moisture, humidity, dew point and temperature
b)     To get an insight into the possible differences in the groundwater level of the areas studied.
c)   To determine impacts of climate change on ground water level for the study area, and to assess the sensitivity of the results to different global climate models;
d)   Analyze weather          parameter data and build future predicted climate change datasets with temperature, humidity, soil moisture and dew point
e)   The time intervals between observations of these parameters (sometimes referred to as data interval) are normally constant.  These analyses would enable us to know how these parameters fluctuated with the respect to time and how the fast Fourier transform corrects the irregularities from the frequency trends.
This project has the advantage that it is very useful in determining the variations in climate parameters, the suitability of such place for agricultural and study purpose and in determining groundwater level change in three different regions.
The choice of study area for this work was picked at random.  For the rural region, a town called Olomoro, Delta state, in Isoko South Local Government Area while for the urban location, a region called Afiesere, Delta state, in Ughelli North was picked.  As for Urban-rural location, Ugbomro town, Delta state was picked.
In chapter one, the introduction to the project is presented, the aim, objectives and methodology were also presented.  Chapter two covers the literature review.
Chapter three presents the methodology and the process of data acquisition.  Chapter four covers the result from the acquired data and the Fortran analyzed graphs of the three regions, while chapter five presents the conclusion and recommendation.

« on: January 21, 2020, 04:50:51 PM »


The evidence of Rainfall and Temperature trend is recognized by today’s world as one of the important environmental problems that affect humanity. It refers to a serious and continuous change in weather pattern, largely attributed to the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and water vapor by humans, mainly produced from thetransport, agriculture, manufacturing and energy sectors of the economy.
Recent changes in climate have led to warmer temperatures, heavy rainfall, drought, and floods etc.  (AkinsanolaandOgunjobi, 2014). Therefore, the knowledge of climate variability over the periodof instrumental records and beyond on differenttemporal and spatial scale is important tounderstand the nature of different climate systems andtheir impact on the environment and society (Oguntundeet al.  2012).
Climate variability is the variations of the normalstate and other statistics of the climate on all temporal and spatial scales beyond that of individual weatherevents.  Variability may result from natural internal processes within the climate system (internal variability)or from anthropogenic external forces (external variability) (IPCC 2001, 2005).  The global climate has changed rapidly with theglobal mean temperature increasing by 0. 7oC within thelast century (IPCC 2007).  However, the rates of changeare significantly different among regions (IPCC 2007). This is primarily due to the varied types of land surfaces with different surface albedo, evapotranspiration andcarbon cycle affecting the climate in different ways.
The Niger Delta is a very sensitive area housing several ecosystems or local biomes.  This has made it particularly vulnerable to little changes in environmental conditions, weather variability inclusive.  Apart from the generalized effects of climate variability, there are certain impacts that are either unique to or more pronounced in the region.  Some of these are discussed below.
1. 1. 1 Coastal Erosion and Flooding
The Niger Delta region is a coastal environment in which Warri is a major city with high rate of petroleum exploration activities.  Increased flooding and aggravated erosional activities have been reported in the coastal regions and these have been linked with global warming by the IPCC.  According to the IPCC (1990), working with records over the last 100 years, have shown that a strong correlation exist between greenhouse gases emission and climate change and between global temperature and sea level rise.  Global temperature is expected to rise by between 0. 2oC to 0. 5oC per decade.  The rise in temperature is expected to cause thermal expansion of sea and melting of polar ice.  These will cause the sea level to rise for about 3-10 cm per decade during the next century.  In some places, especially in Forcados, some oil wells have been lost to the ocean due to erosion.  Apart from coastal erosion, flash flood in general has impacted negatively the livelihood of many communities within the Warri environ as a result of excessive rainfall.  Flood and erosion remove top soil, destroy roads, affect fresh water resources and threaten lives and properties.  Many people have been rendered homeless by floods and several roads have been made impassable.
1. 1. 2 Change in Rainfall Pattern
Meteorological data have shown that rainfall pattern in Nigeria has changed in the past decades.  Oladipo (1995) reported that the decline in rainfall in Nigeria started at the beginning of the 1960s when a decade of relatively wet years ended.  According to him, the persistence of below-mean rainfall in the last two decades in Nigeria is an indication of an abrupt change in climate.  The Niger Delta lie predominantly in the tropics having two seasons – the wet and dry seasons.  The wet season occur from May to September, while the dry season begins in October and ends in April. Food security has been defined as the ability of people to grow and obtain food.  The agricultural sector in Nigeria is highly sensitive to rainfall pattern.  It has been predicted that climate variability orchange will pose serious threat to food security.  Climate change creates uncertainty in the rainfall pattern (timing and amount) and affects agricultural activities.
Agriculture in the Niger Delta is highly dependent on rain and irrigation is seldom practiced.  The changes in the rainfall pattern have greatly affected the agriculture in the region.  Farmers in the region begin cultivation at the end of the dry season, when the rain begins to fall.  They plant their crops after the first or second rain in the month of March, and sometime in April.  After the first rain, the rain falls periodically till the months of June/July (the peak of the rainy season), when rain fall more or less continually.  The periodic rainfall pattern before the peak in June enables farmers to cultivate various crops.   Because of the change in rainfall pattern, farmers who plant after the first or second rain in run into huge loss when the rains are delayed beyond the usual due to climatic changes.  The crops are scotched causing huge economic loss.  Before this time farmers can predict the rain and they know precisely when to plant their crops.  The crops after they are planted are watered periodically by rain before the peak of the rainfall in June.  The amount of rainfall within the period before the peak is necessary for the optimum performance of many crops most especially the maize which is widely consumed in every part of Nigeria.  (Etiosa and Mathew 2007. )
1. 1. 3 Vegetation Loss
One important feature observed in the study region is the gradual disappearance of primary forests (Etiosa and Agho 2007).  This may be partly due to climate change and partly due to human activities.  Uncontrolled logging, agricultural activities, acid rain, oil exploration and exploitation, urbanization and mining activities contribute to lose of vegetation.  The vegetation of some part of the Niger Delta is dominated by grasses, sedges and shrubs with few scattered trees and they were mainly palm trees.  In other parts, trees grow close to one another to form thick canopy over undergrowths. The Niger Delta region of Nigeria which contains one of the highest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet could experience a loss of about 40% of its inhabitable terrain in the next thirty years.  As majority of the people living in the Niger Delta are farmers, the environmental and social consequences of climate change is putting livelihoods at serious risks.
The impacts of climate change together with rising world population enact a serious threat to all vital sectors of the world economy.  Recent concern about rising global temperature was justified by its negative impact in all sectors of the economy most especially water supply, ecosystems, coastal habitats, industries, health and agriculture sectors.  Findings from several studies (Anuforom, 2010; BNRCC, 2011; Farautaet al. , 2011; Odjugo, 2010; UNDP 2010) predicted a temperature rise of 1. 5 0 to 2. 5 0 C for Nigeria in the 21stcentury.  The threat has serious negative consequences for all sectors of the economy.
The major climatic challenge prone to the Warri environment is the Flash Flooding which occur more often after an excessive rainfall in which increasing flood risk is now being recognized as the most important sectoral threat from climate change in most parts of the Delta region which has prompted public debate on the apparent increased frequency of extreme, and in particular, on perceived increase in rainfall intensities (Oriola, 1994).
This observed challenge is creatingincreased uncertainty about future temperature andprecipitation regimes which makes investments inagriculture and other weather-dependent livelihoods inherent more risky (FAO, 2008) in study location.
Based on this background, this study attempts to ascertain the degree of variability of weather pattern in Warri, Delta State, in a bid to understanding, managing and possibly predicting the aforementioned related challenges thereby providing an empirical basis for the formulation of effective adaptation and mitigation policies.
Temperature and rainfall trend detection is an important exercise that can provide an indication of the magnitude of climate or weather variability providing a clear picture of the impact in the trends of the study area and a prerequisite for developing a framework for mitigation and adaptation policies.  The knowledge of temperature and rainfall trends in the study area has tremendous potential benefits some of which can be highlighted as follows:
It will bring to limelight the potential effect of climate variabilityin Warri city It will enlightenrelevant authorities and residents on applicable adaptation measures It will provide empiricalbasis for the formulation of effective mitigation policies  The project work will serve as an indispensable and valuable data for students, academics and future researches who might be interested in validating their findings in similar settings
The Aim of the study is to examine the trend of rainfall and temperature in Warri, Delta State.
The objectives of the research are:
To ascertain the temperature and rainfall trend in Warri, Delta State To discern with certainty the significant changes in temperature and rainfall trend in Warri, Delta State To uncover the implications of observed trend and variations in temperature and rainfall trend in Warri, Delta State
1. 5 STUDY AREA 1. 5. 1 Location and Position
The study area, Warri, has its geographical coordinates as 5°31′N5°45′E/5. 517°N 5. 750°E/5. 517; 5. 750 ( Ekeh and Palmer 2005). Warri is a city in Delta State, Nigeria.  It is an oil hub in South-South Nigeria and houses an annex of the Delta State Government House . Warri city is one of the major hubs of petroleum activities and businesses in the southern Nigeria.  Delta state, southern Nigeriais bounded by Edo state to the north, Anambra state to the east, Rivers state to the southeast, Bayelsa state to the south, the Bight of Benin of the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and Ondo state to the northwest.  On the east and south the state is bounded by the lower course and delta of the Niger River.
Delta State currently has twenty-five local government areas.  They are: Aniocha North, Aniocha South, Bomadi, Burutu, Ethiope East, Ethiope West, lkaNorthEast, lka South, Isoko North, Isoko South, Ndokwa East, Ndokwa West Okpe, Oshimili North Oshimili South, Patani, Sapele, Udu, Ughelli North, Ughelli South, Ukwani, Uvwie, Warri North, Warri South and Warri SouthWest.
1. 5. 2 Population
It is a commercial capital city of Delta State, with a population of over 311,970 people according to the national population census figures for 2006.  The city is one of cosmopolitan cities in southern Nigeria comprising originally of Urhobo, Itsekiri and Ijaw people.
1. 5. 3 Climate
The climatic condition of Warri region experiences moderate rainfall and moderate humidity for most part of the year.  The climate is equatorial and is marked by two distinct seasons: the dry season and the rainy season.  The dry season lasts from about November to April and is significantly marked by the cool "harmattan" dusty haze from the north-east winds.  The rainy season spans May to October with a brief dry spell in August, but it frequently rains even in the dry season.  The area is characterized by tropical equatorial climate with mean annual temperature of 32. 8 °C and annual rainfall amount of 2673. 8 mm.  There are high temperatures of 20 °C and 29. 6 °C.  The natural vegetation is of rainforest with swamp forest in some areas.  The forest is rich in timber trees, palm trees, as well as fruit trees.
1. 5. 4 Geology
Warri in Delta State is a part of the Niger Delta Structural Basin in which three major sedimentary cycles have occurred since the early Cretaceous.  The subsurface stratigraphic units associated with the cycles are, the Benin, the Agbada and the Akata Formations (Kogbe, 1976).  The surface rock throughout the state consists of the OgwashiUku formation.  The Benin formation is about 1800m and consists of loose and unconsolidated sands. There is little hydrocarbon associated with it.  The underlying Agbada Formation which consists of sandstone and shales is, however, rich in hydrocarbons.  It is up to 3000m and is underlain by the Akata Formation.  The OgwashiAsaba Formation that underlies the northeast consists of an alternation of lignite seams and clay.
1. 5. 5 Relief
Warri is a region built up by the sedimentation of the Niger Delta and consists of the delta in various stages of development.  Four major physiographic units are identifiable with in it.  First, the freshwater swamp which is the most active area.  It is located close to the River Niger, where annual flooding and deposition occurs up to 45 km from the river's course.
Second, the man grove swamp area described as an intermediate delta stage.  It is much lower and a great proportion of it is brackish, having been invaded by the sea since large amounts of freshwater have ceased flowing into it.  Third, the upland and swamp, which is also called the coastal plain.
It lies between the flood plain and Benin lowlands.  The swamps are more restricted to broad drainage channels created when this area was an active delta.  Fourth and finally, the upland Niger valley, which is a narrow strip above the delta and relatively flood free.
1. 5. 6 Ecological Problems
The environmental setting of Warri, Delta State has very serious ecological problems such as erosion and flooding.  Coastal and creek erosion affect the coastal areas, resulting in loss of farm and residential land, and in some cases whole village such as Ogulaha and Ugborodo (Ibe,1988).
Flood is a widespread phenomenon in the state.  In the coastal area, the numerous rivers and creeks flood their banks creating social and economic problems.  Flash floods and flood pondages are the major features of the drylands, especially in the urban centre of Warri, Sapele and Ughelli.
In recent times, oil exploitation and gas flaring have further aggravated the ecological problems, causing very serious environmental pollution.  The consequences include the destruction of aquatic life and vegetation and reduction in soil productivity.
1. 5. 7 Socio-Economic Activities
Warri is the economic heartbeat of Delta State, being the divisional headquarter for ShellPetroleum Development Co-operations (SPDC), also a swamp location for exploration andproduction of oil for SPDC.  Other oil companies as well as oil servicing companies are alsosituated in the town. Major industries in the area are oil mining, oil servicing, petro- chemicals and sculptural and bronze making establishments.

« on: January 18, 2020, 12:35:44 PM »

Nigeria, located in West Africa, has a total land area of 983,213 square kilometres.  Presently, its estimated population is over 150 million people (World Bank Population figures) yielding an average density of more than120persons per square kilometres.  Industrial activities, in its modern forms, are relatively recent in the history of Nigeria’s economic development.  During the pre-colonial period, Nigeria featured considerable craft industry as modern factory activity was then not known.  With the advent of the Second World War and its aftermath, the economy of Nigeria changed tremendously and there were demands from Europe for industrial raw materials.  With time, due to the low technological base, industrial development took on the assembly-type pattern of import substitution (Wikipedia, 2015).  However, political self determination since 1960 did provide the opportunity for improving on its import substitution strategy as well as developing its potentials for real industrial take off through capital goods industry.  Prior to the discovery of crude oil in Oloibiri, Rivers State in 1956,agriculture (before 1970) was the mainstay of the Nigerian economy.  The oil boom witnessed in the 1970s led to a tremendous increase in industrial activities.  With financial resources available from oil and no development policy, unguided urbanization and industrialization took place.  As desirable and necessary as this development was, it became an albatross not of itself but because of the lack of appropriate environmental protection policies to guide it.  The result was the indiscriminate siting of industries, deforestation and desertification, disregarding the need for environmental concern.  The process technology of some of these industries often resulted in unacceptable levels of toxic and dangerous industrial wastes and effluent emissions.  These culminated in the degradation of the environment and devastating ecological and human disasters.
As a result of these, the need to combine industrial development and environmental protection arose.  Acts of legislation for environmental protection, known as environmental laws, were then enacted.  However, the researcher is seeking to provide an highlights on the various issues of environmental pollution and the challenges encountered in establishing an effective environmental enforcement programme and the solutions proffered by the government in tackling these problems (Wikipedia, 2015).
Oil is the primary base of Nigeria’s economy and is also the cause of major environmental and social problems in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.  Over the years, oil exploration, production, and refinement in Nigeria has resulted in various environmental and ecological problems that range from oil spills, gas flares, habitat destruction, air and water pollution, and land degradation.  Also, a major cause of oil pollution in that same region is also to a great extent, from the activities of illegal oil bunkering and illegal refineries operated indigenes and some highly placed individuals in government.  The chemical properties of spilled oil often affect the productiveness of soil and pollute water bodies, thereby causing irreparable damage to agricultural lands as well as aquatic bodies.
Gas flaring is a significant environmental and economic problem in and Nigeria emits approximately 70 million metric tons of carbon dioxide annually (US EIA1999).  This adversely affects the socio-economic actives of local communities, which is primarily based on fishing and farming (Egunjobi1993).  It is estimated that in one region alone in the Niger Delta, flaring is statistically likely to cause 49 premature deaths, 5000 respiratory illnesses among children and some 120,000 asthma attacks and 8 additional causes of cancer each year (Environmental Rights Action and the Climate Justice Programme).
Another major environmental issue ravaging Nigeria is water pollution.  According to Anukam (1997), the main source of water pollution in Nigeria has to do with forestry activities.  Deforestation and improper soil tillage practices increase the concentration of soil particles that make their way into water bodies and in turn increases their sediment loads. .  The discharge of industrial waste materials into bodies of water is another major source of pollution in Nigeria.  Discharges from industries such as petroleum, mining, iron and steel, pharmaceuticals, and textiles among others have increased the contents of sulfates and nitrates in water bodies and has altered properties such as color and odor (Adelegan 2004).  These metals and other chemical substance increase the toxicity of water bodies as well as soils.  A large percentage of Nigerians derive most of their domestic and drinking water from ponds, stream, and shallow wells.  Hence, water pollution is a major health concern that places the health of about 40 million people at risk of diseases such as cholera, dysentery, diarrhea, and typhoid (Anukam 1997, Adelegan 2004, Orubu 2006).  Domestic and industrial waste has also constituted a major source of environmental pollution in Nigeria.  The improper disposal and ineffective management of municipal solid waste and industrial waste creates major environmental and aesthetic problems in most of Nigeria’s urban areas.  Due to overpopulation and the creation of slums, most municipal areas currently generate more waste than they can manage (Ogbonna and Ekweozor, 2002).  This has led to the accumulation of waste heaps in “several areas, blocking motorways and making passage along alleys and pavements difficult” (Ajayi and Ikporokpo 2005).  The most common method of waste disposal in Nigeria is waste transfer from one region to another and incineration.  The first involves the transfer of waste from a region that is considered to have a higher aesthetic value to one that has a lower one.  The waste incineration method of waste disposal often results in air pollution due to the release of gases such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, halogenated carbons, and other particulate matter.
There is need for government to enact and implement necessary environmental laws to control the issues of environmental pollution and this can be done by putting necessary environmental pollution enforcement structures in place to curb the spate of environmental pollution in Nigeria.
1. 2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Irrespective of the numerous environmental laws enacted to protect the environment, environmental degradation has continued unabated.  Oil spillage and gas flaring activities are still commonplace in Nigeria, especially in the oil-rich Niger Delta.  Gas flaring has also continued unabated irrespective of the Nigerian government’s directive to end flaring by 2010 (Kalu, 2009).  The Idoho oil spill incidence of 1997 spilled 40,000 barrels of crude oil into the environment.  It travelled all the way from Akwa Ibom state to Lagos state dispersing oil through the coastal states, up to the Lagos coast.  According to the Department of Petroleum Resources, between 1997 and 2001, Nigeria recorded a total number of 2,097 oil spill incidents amounting to 1,947,600 barrels of crude oil.
Thousands of barrels of oil have been split into the environment through our oil pipelines and tanks in the country.  Enforcement of environmental regulations is still poor as industries continue to discharge untreated waste water into the environment.  Heaps of refuse are always a constant sight to behold in Nigerian streets and markets.
Most recently, in December 2011, the SPDC’s Bonga offshore platform spilled about 40, 000 barrels of crude oil into Nigerian waters.  On January 16 2012, a gas explosion occurred at the Finuwa oil field owned by Chevron Nigeria Limited.  The Nigerian government was shockingly silent about these two incidents.  This study however wants to identify the problems of environmental pollution and proffer solution to the issue.
1. 3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The following are the objectives of this study:
To identify the issues of environmental pollution in Nigeria.  To analyze the impact of environmental pollution in Nigeria.  To determine the solutions to the challenges of environmental pollution in Nigeria.
What are the issues of environmental pollution in Nigeria? What is the impact of environmental pollution in Nigeria? What are the solutions to the challenges of environmental pollution in Nigeria?
1. 5   HYPOTHESIS HO: Environmental pollution is not a major challenge in Nigeria HA: Environmental pollution is a major challenge in Nigeria
1. 6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The following are the significance of this study:
The outcome of this research will educate the general public on the issues and the adverse effect of environmental pollution in Nigeria.  The findings from this study is going to necessitate measures that will lead to demand for improved implementation of environmental pollution control laws in Nigeria This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied, it will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
1. 7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY This study on environmental pollution in Nigeria will cover all cases of environmental pollution ranging from air and water pollution due to oil exploration and refining, effluent waste from industries, dump sites all over Nigeria market and streets and even noise pollution.
LIMITATION OF STUDYFinancial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work.  This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
REFERENCES Amukam, O. , (1997).  Pollution control regulation the Nigerian oil industry (Lagos: N. I. A. L. S. 1997).  Ogbonna, E. A. , and Ekweozor, P. , (2000): The Adverse Effects of Crude Oil Spills in the Niger Delta.  Urhobo Historical Society.  Ajayi, A.  & Ikporokpor, D. , 2002.  International Environmental law (Ardley son: Transnational Publishcrs).  Orubu, E. A.  (2006) The Community of Oil Exporting Countries New York: Cornell University Press).  Kalu V.  E. , LL. M, BL, (2009): Toxic Wastes And the Nigerian Environment; Dept.  Of Private &Property Law, University of Benin: An Appraisal.  Adelegan, M. M. , 2004: Nigerian Petroleum Law and Practice (Ibadan.  Nigeria: Fountain Books).  Pearson, S. R. , Petroleum in Nigerian Economy (California: Stanford University Press,1970).


What is Environmental Integrity? 
In an attempt to understand the meaning of the phrase “environmental integrity”, this paper, shall attempt to separate the phrase to enable it arrive at a definition.  While the phrase “Environmental” concerns with the environment; connected with the natural conditions in which people, animals and plant live”.  The term integrity connotes uprightness, honesty, purity entireness, wholeness; the unimpaired state of anything.   Given the above meanings to the phrase, it follows that environmental integrity is the retainment of the pure state, the unimpaired state of the natural conditions in which people, animals and plant live in all human endeavours.  Environmental integrity has also been defined as the sustenance of important biophysical processes which support plant and animal life and which must be allowed to continue without significant change.  The objective is to assure the continued health of essential life support systems of nature, including air, water, and soil by protecting the resistance, diversity and purity of natural communities (ecosystems) within the environment.  Stricto senso, environmental integrity paints a picture of an environment void of all forms of pollution from all polluting sources, which are basically the making of human activities in its quest for survival ranging from pollution from industries, homes, etc.  This means that human survival and development cannot exist without pollution and because this state is unattainable, i. e.  (humans cannot just still and await death) the concept of environmental integrity will now mean an effort by humans to maintain a sustainability of environmental resources of the environment in all aspects of its activities through its conducts, applicability of its working tools and through regulations applied in such a way as to improve all the components of the environment and not to degrade same.  ENVIRONMENTAL INTEGRITY IN NIGERIA Flowing from the above definition of what environmental integrity connotes, the question that arises is what is the state of environment in Nigeria?  How Environmental integrity maintained in Nigeria?  In the quest for economic development, Nigeria veered in industrialization at independence.  The first decade (1960 – 1970) of Nigeria’s independence witnessed government plan to promote growth of industries in order to contribute directly to economic growth and national development.  In the 1970’s two of the most applauded goals of the national development plans were:
Increase in self reliance in the supply of industrial products and factor inputs.  Develop and support small and medium scale industries and their contribution to manufacturing.
In 1990s, the government targeted, among others:

« on: January 17, 2020, 10:43:48 AM »
Background of the Study 

The orphanage home is one of the numerous social institution that have emerged over the year to carter for some of the social needs  of orphanage associated with such problems.
Motherless  babies  have nowadays  become common because of the moral decadence of the society young people who cannot cater  for themselves find themselves  put in the   family  way they end  up find abandoning those innocent helpless babies.   The increasing hardship because of the present economic recession  has  increased the incidence of burden  family relationship and  the consequent loss  of firm control of  family members.  This has tended as evidence  by the  increasing number of abandoned babies such babies have become the central focus of the orphanage home the impact of orphanage home on child personality development that is the behaviour pattern of social behariour on child personality  development.                 
The research try to compare children between the age of one (1) month to three (3) years that grows up in orphanage home  to those that grow-up with their parent children  from the orphanage behave  in a unique pattern thereby displaying some certain social behaviour attitude that could be associated with the up bringing in the orphanage home.  I want to find out the positive and negative aspect of orphanage home on children personality development generally.   Any baby that  lost his or her  parent  especially the mother by what every means  become mentally ill once it is discovered the illness is taken from the mother by the  orphanage   children abandon  in hospital  or on the street are taken to the orphanage home.  Social welfare services and training of professional social workers of all categories social workers can  succeed out making their contribution towards realizing their objective of government  in improving people welfare only after they have keenly understood the problem.
The causes and the effect of those people on he community the desertation is an attempt toward such changes taking place and their documentation the study will focus on the impact of the orphanage home on  child personality  development in the  later parts of his life.     
The Kaduna orphanage home is the birth child of Jammiyyar Matan Arewa.
The Jamiyar Matan Arewa itself is a social organization of northern women  established on the 27th May 1963 it  was aimed at unifying the women folk and  providing hem with a  forum of welfare activities.
The organization was to  be non-political  and it membership was to be opened   to all  tribes religions or social status at the very first meeting of the Jammiyar Matan Arewa which took place in the house of General Hassan Usman Katsina a steering committee was set up to carry on the task of mobilizing women for the association and also to plan and organize fund raising  activities to meet up the financial obligation of  the association.
1. 2   Statement of the Problem Children brought up in the orphanage home cannot cope effectively with the outside world this display in their dispositions because most of them tend to be introverts and always want to keep to themselves in few causes they turn out to be backward in speed and verbal  intelligence.  According to Segmund Fraud (1945) children who grown  up in the orphanage home may likely to affected in their  culture tradition, and religion are  their interests  belief ambitions ideas and soon thus affecting the personality  development as their behaviors is not only more indiscriminate but more immature than those children who are with their natural parent.  Hence the increase in various research as to find out the effectiveness and influence of these home (orphanage home) on the child personality development.
1. 3   Purpose of the Study 1.      Find out the positive and negative IMPACT OF ORPHANAGE HOME ON THE CHILD’S PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT.         
2.      Determine the effect of orphanage home on child’s personality development.  3.      Find out the morale and attitude of children raised in orphanage home.  1. 4   Research Questions.  1.      What are the positive and negative impact of orphanage home on the child’s personality development.  2.      What are the likely effect of orphanage home on the child personality.  3.      What are the morale and attitude acquired by children raised in the orphanage home.
1. 5   Scope of the Study This study is limited to the orphanage home Kaduna.   Therefore the study is restricted to the impact of orphanage home on the child’s personality development.

« on: January 17, 2020, 10:27:03 AM »

The concepts of child abuse and child neglect are forms of maltreatment on the child that impedes child survival, development and participation.  Children are seen as assets to parents and government because they are human resources that any society can boast of, therefore, parents and government invest in them in order to obtain better tomorrow.  This can be achieved however, if their early child socialization is devoid of harmful cultural practices that crippled their chances of survival, development and participation.  Ejikeme (1987) defines child abuse as a problem arising from the intention of an adult to carry out an act that is inimical or detrimental to the physical, intellectual, language, emotional, moral and social development of a child; while child neglect which involves some degree of deprivation refers to an intentional failure of an adult to perform physical, cognitive, moral and social development of a child.  However, it is imperative to note in this premise that what constitute child maltreatment in one society may not be considered same in another society, this is because of cultural differences an belief, practices.  From the above, it will be important to trace the fact that there might be different factors that caused child abuse and neglect since the application of cultural ideology is not universal; that is, it changes across societies.  However, different forms of child maltreatment exist like: child trafficking, street begging, street hawking, child discrimination or child preference, early marriage, prostitution, child labour, use of virgin girl-child for ritual/sacrifice etc.  despite tangible evidences or empirical indicators of child abuse and neglect, it is difficult to measure. 
This is so because it is recognized as a major social problem that occurs in all levels of social class, race, religion and ethnic groups.  It is important to note that the practice of child abuse and neglect is supported by government indirectly when the individual is seen as a product of the society.
Poor socio-economic status of parents trace its roots through unemployment and destitution as government does not address social inequality, unemployment and poverty amongst its citizens, instead people in position work towards actualizing their selfish ends and those who cannot meet the society values

« on: January 13, 2020, 08:41:42 AM »

The twenty-first century has been tagged the ‘entrepreneurial age’.  This is because nations are been shaped by entrepreneurs, men and women who have made changes by risking                                various resources e. g.  time, money, energy in establishing and running their own businesses.  The unacceptable rate of youth unemployment in the country, the low standard of living and the hope of technological transfer has led to a renewed interest in entrepreneurship development in Nigeria.  The claim of some people is that entrepreneurship education does not need to be taught and therefore, an entrepreneur is born to be so.  It should be noted that for someone to be a successful entrepreneur, he/she needs to learn the skills (Griffin and Hammis, 2001).  The global world is currently facing a very hard time and Nigeria as a nation cannot run away from it; rather we are to provide solution to some of these problems facing us.  Some of the major problems facing Nigeria currently include recession, unemployment, poverty, inadequate and poor healthcare services, insecurity, Nigeria cannot resolve these problems when we neglect or refuse to develop the capacity for entrepreneurship which will lead to the employability of the youths.
Entrepreneurship education seeks to prepare people most especially the growing youths to be responsible and independent rather than dependent, to be thinkers who will contribute to economic development.  It is not just teaching someone how to start a business rather it encourages creative thinking, innovation and the visualization of the thought.
 Education aims at influencing the learner’s characters and also enabling the learner to develop in all areas.
  The term entrepreneur was first used by Cantillon in 1734 to describe a person who bears the risk of profit or loss.  Entrepreneurship which is the bedrock of the world and economy at large is the key driver of our economy in the sense that jobs and wealth are created by small businesses started by entrepreneurial minded individuals which then trend to grow into large establishments.
Entrepreneurship education encompasses strategies in introducing and instilling entrepreneurship attitudes into students.  Entrepreneurship education instills in students the additional knowledge, attributes and capabilities required in the context of setting up a new venture or business and the ability to demonstrate initiative and original thought, alongside self-discipline in starting tasks.  It is aimed at producing university graduates with thinking and entrepreneurial attributes; thereby enlightening them on the challenges of obtaining capital for business set-up.  It is a lifelong learning process starting as early as elementary school and progressing through all levels of education.
Furthermore, entrepreneurship education will inculcate and expose the students and potential entrepreneurs to entrepreneurial values and skills which include the aspect of leadership, innovation, creativity, competitiveness independence, calculated risk and ability to identify and create opportunities (Akpomi, 2008).
More so, it is the incorporation into the students’ syllabus steps involved in starting a new business based on a recognised business opportunity as well as operating and maintaining that business.  It will enhance necessary identification and avoidance of various problems that might be faced by the less trained contemporaries.  The training in  may initially be perceived as a cost in terms of time and money but it would eventually be appreciated.  The enlightenment philosopher John Locker (1632-1704) stress that every human has a fortune in their own personality.  From the perspective of entrepreneurship, this means that this fortune of a human being is constituted of mental recourse which includes; internal entrepreneurship, self-development and learning new things and ideas, and also material recourses which refer to external entrepreneurship that is material values.  Schumpeter in 1934 argued that entrepreneurship education is very significant to the growth and development of economies.  It becomes apparent that careful attention is needed to invest and promote entrepreneurship, having understood the vital role of entrepreneurship in economic development through employment.  The development of employability and entrepreneurship skills has to be through a series of well-coordinated steps and processes, not the current slapdash approach in which in various universities the first two years of study, undergraduates are taught the theory of entrepreneurship while in the third year they are then taught practical.  it should realized that entrepreneurship cannot be taught in isolation of employability skills.
Employability is a continuous learning process that means once employed, learning does not stop.  Employability is a management philosophy; developed by a student Rashid Khan from India, Mumbai, which recognises that employment and market performance stem from the initiative, creativity and competencies of all employees and not just from the wisdom of senior management.  Lee Harvey defines employability as the ability of a graduate to get a satisfying job, stating that job acquisition should not be prioritized over preparedness for employment to avoid pseudo measure of individual employability.  Lee argues that employability is not a set of skills but a range of experience and attributes developed through higher-level learning, thus employability is not a “product” but a process of learning.   Students who engage in developing their employability are said to be likely independent, reflective and responsible learners.
Unemployment is a common phenomenon among graduate hence the need for entrepreneurship education cannot be over emphasized, thus, it will help to reduce if not eradicate this havoc of unemployment in our society.  Unemployment has led to mental health, health disease, crime and violence, suicide case and even poverty.  Nigeria unemployment rate was recorded at 12. 1% in March quarter 2016 and 13. 3% in June quarter 2016, up from 10. 4 percent in the fourth quarter of 2015, the number of unemployed persons rose by 18 percent that is 9. 485 million, meanwhile, youth unemployment increased to 21. 5 percent from 19 percent as reported by the National Bureau of Statistics, Nigeria.  Nigeria is in a present state of recession having realised two consecutive quarters of negative GDP (gross domestic product), in March quarter -0. 36 and in June quarter -2. 06 in 2016, at this stage, job creation will be very difficult in Nigeria.  Having seen the above statistics it could be deduced that the unemployment rate in Nigeria keeps increasing over the years, this problem can be capped with the introduction of entrepreneurship education into the university syllabus.  The Phillips Consulting Education and Employability Report (2014) highlights the need for skills such as critical thinking, interpersonal relationship, ability to work with technology, etc, but these skills have not been taught  in our universities in order to equip students ,taken to consideration that these skills are required for employability thus rendering the students unemployable in the society.
The federal government of Nigeria in an attempt to ensure that her citizens are self-employed established the National Directorate of Employment in 1986.  It is the belief of the government that this agency will reduce unemployment, which is a problem in our society.  The agency’s operations include; reactivation of public works, promotion of direct labour, self-employment, organisation of artisans into cooperative and encouragement of culture of maintenance and repairs (Onifade, 2001).  In others countries like UK, by 2000, business and entrepreneurial development was listed by Universities UK as one of four strategic goals for British universities, the broad aim of this initiative was to add value to society and the economy though the transfer of knowledge and also presented an opportunity for higher education institutions to contribute to the development of entrepreneurial and enterprising students, and graduates.  The Department of Business in 2008, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform reported on the Government's renewed strategy and vision to make the UK the most enterprising economy in the world and the best place to start and grow a business.  It laid out a new enterprise policy framework around five separate but interlinked themes as key enablers for the country's enterprise performance: culture of enterprise, knowledge and skills, access to finance, regulatory framework, and business innovation.  The report highlighted the need for enterprise education from primary to tertiary education, the Government's vision of inspiring an enterprising approach among students and graduates, and the promotion of innovation as a core driver for enterprise (Berr, 2008).
However, this study will examine entrepreneurship education as a determinant of employability among BabCo*k University students using the final year students of the university as a case study.  The University incorporated into the syllabus of the students irrespective of course or department a course known as ‘Entrepreneurship’.  It is therefore necessary for these categories of students to think like an entrepreneur since they are expected to start their own businesses after graduation or work closely with entrepreneurs.
1. 2       Statement of Problem
Nigeria educational system that turns out graduates from about 150 Universities and 50 Polytechnics and Monotechnics do not adequately train their graduates to be self reliant, but these graduates depend solely on white collar jobs for sustenance.  It has been reported that about 80% of graduates find it difficult to get employed yearly and at the same time, much has not been done in trying to solve this problem.  However, entrepreneurship education can bridge this gap by equipping the undergraduates in becoming a successful entrepreneur thereby creating employment.   Apart from the book knowledge that they gain there are no requisite skills to make them self dependent.  Entrepreneurship skills acquired through entrepreneurship education has been recognised as an important aspect of organizations and the economy as a whole.  It contributes in an immeasurable way toward creating new job, poverty reduction, wealth creation and income generation for both government and individuals.
Although, several attempts have been made at encouraging entrepreneurial activities in Nigeria in the past, there is no gain saying the fact that these initiatives failed to produce the desired results due to various constraints such as poor implementation, inadequate and inefficient infrastructural facilities and over bearing bureaucracy have been identified as being responsible for this failure.
This study therefore intend to investigate how entrepreneurship education provided in BabCo*k University syllabus has prepared the students for future employment challenges and the extent to which entrepreneurship education determines employability among BabCo*k University students.
1. 3       Objectives of the Study
The general objective of the study is examining entrepreneurship education as a determinant of employability among BabCo*k University students while the following are the specific objectives;
To find out the assessment of BabCo*k University students on the course Entrepreneurship education.  To find the impact of entrepreneurship education on BabCo*k University students To find out if entrepreneurship education can be a significant determinant of employability among BabCo*k University students.
1. 4       Research Questions
What is the student’s assessment of entrepreneurship education? What is the impact of entrepreneurship education on BabCo*k University students? Will entrepreneurship education significantly determine employability among BabCo*k University Students?
1. 5       Statement of hypothesis
 The following hypotheses will be tested in this study:
Ho1: Entrepreneurship education will not significantly determine employability among BabCo*k University students.
1. 6       Significance of the Study
The move by the government through the Federal Ministry of Education to make entrepreneurship education one of the compulsory general studies for students in universities across the country should be seen as a positive step in the right direction.  This is to inculcate in the youths the spirit of self reliance.  This development will not only address the problem of unemployment and underemployment but will also ensure an entrepreneurial human capacity for national development and also give students an alternative career option and the confidence that they can set up their own business or social enterprise.
The significance of this study brings to knowledge the crucial need to increase employability through the use of entrepreneurship education putting more consideration on the educational system and its developmental effect in the society.
The study highlights the problems of lack of employment or knowledge of how to start-up businesses; the resultant effect of which is a society that breeds healthy partnership and motivation.
However, the contribution of this research work to knowledge identifies what is important to the economy, which is qualitative entrepreneurship education in increasing employment which is the focus need of the economy.
1. 7       Scope of the study
This research work which focuses on entrepreneurship education as a determinant of employability which will be carried out among 400level students of BabCo*k University The study considers entrepreneurship skills of this group of people to be relevant because they have undergone the course ‘Entrepreneurship’.
1. 8       Operational definition
In the course of this study the following variables entrepreneur, entrepreneurship, education, entrepreneurship education, employability and unemployment have been used constantly, this will serve as a guide in understanding this variables;
Entrepreneur: is a person that singlehandedly start his/her own business with initiative and insight of growing this business using the skills, talents and ideas acquired.  This individual prefers to be self-employed rather than be employed; he/she handles the risk of the business and also enjoys the profit generated from this same business.
Entrepreneurship: the ability to start up, develop, organise and manage a business venture been fully aware of its risks and challenges and also its profits and gains.  Education: it is the process of going through trainings, acquiring knowledge, giving or receiving systematic information in order to facilitate learning and also the ability to put into practise what has been learnt.  It is the act of acquiring knowledge whether formally or at informally hereby leading to a change in behaviour which enables one to fit properly into the society large.
Entrepreneurship education: this is a programme or course offered by all final year students of BabCo*k University which seeks to provide students with necessary information, insights and ideas on how to start, develop, organise and manage a business of their own.  It deals with creativity.
Employability: It involves essential skills and abilities that enables one to be gainfully employed into the various employment opportunities thereby reducing the unemployment rate in the country.
Unemployment: it is an economic situation in which individuals that are willing and able to work, are not presently working because they could not get gainfully employment
Entrepreneurship skills: these are the necessary set of skills required to be possessed by an entrepreneur in order to run a business successfully
Self employment: this is when an individual takes up the risk of starting; managing, directing and organising his/her own business with the purpose of increasing the economic growth and also to maximize profit.

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