Author Topic: ZOBO DRINK MAY PROVIDE CURE FOR DIARRHOEA, PNEUMONIA  (Read 18284 times)

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ZOBO DRINK MAY PROVIDE CURE FOR DIARRHOEA, PNEUMONIA
« on: December 09, 2009, 07:22:43 AM »
Zobo drink may provide cure for diarrhoea, pneumonia

HERBAL drink made with roselle (zobo), scent leaf, garlic and ginger could be a home-made cure for diarrhoea and pneumonia.

IT is red and spicy. It has become a common drink in most homes in the country. In recent times it has been commer...ed because of its touted medicinal potentials.

Nigerian researchers have confirmed that a popular herbal drink, Zobo, prepared with roselle (fresh calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa as main ingredient) scent leaf (Ocimum gratissimum), garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiber officinarium) could be effectively used to treat diarrhoea and pneumonia.

Hibiscus sabdariffa is commonly called Roselle in English. It belongs to the family Malvaceae. The vegetable is widely grown and commonly used as port herb or soup in the northern part of Nigeria. In Hausa the plant is locally called Yakuwa, the seed Isontea while the fresh calyx is referred to as Soboroto. The Yoruba call the leaves Amukan and the flowers Ishapa. However, it is commonly called zobo in Nigeria.

Commonly called scent leaf, Ocimum gratissimum belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is known as Efinrin ajase in Yoruba, Ebavbokho in Bini, Aai doya ta gida in Hausa, Nchuanwu in Igbo. The leaves are used locally for soup. It is also used to treat cases of stomach upset and diarrhea.

Garlic (Allium sativum) is of plant family Liliaceae. Local names: Igbo - ayuu; Yoruba - ayu. The bulb is used for fevers, coughs, constipation, asthma, nervous disorders, hypertension, ulcers and skin diseases. It is highly bacteriostatic (stops the growth of bacteria), fungicidal (kills fungi) and antihelmintic (worm expeller).

According to previous studies, crushed garlic (soup) is used against microbial infection, asthma cough and respiratory problems. The juice of the bulb is given as ear-drops against earaches. As a seasoning and flavouring agent, garlic is principally taken against fevers and chills.

A cold infusion of garlic serves as a body-wash for infants as protection against chills. The bulb also serves as effective remedy for hypertension, muscular pain, giddiness and sore eyes. It is digestive and carminative and removes pains of the bowels. When powdered with nation it is applied as a dressing on ulcers and skin diseases.

A carminative, also known as carminativum (plural carminativa), is an herb or preparation that either prevents formation of gas in the gastrointestinal tract, or facilitates the expulsion of said gas, thereby combating flatulence.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is of plant family Zingiberaceae. Local Names: Efik/Ibibio - jinja; Igbo - jinja; Yoruba - aje, orin, or atale. The rhizome is used to toothache, congested nostrils, cough, colds, influenza and flu, asthma, stomach problems, rheumatism, piles, hepatitis and liver problems.

Until now, ginger has been extensively used in herbal remedies. In fact, ginger has been used to control or prevent nausea, vomiting, and motion sickness; as an anti-inflammatory (a drug that reduces pain and swelling as in arthritis), a cold remedy, an aid to digestion; a remedy for intestinal gas.

A recent report from the United Nations Children Education Fund (UNICEF) indicates that diarrhoea and pneumonia kill an estimated 3.5 million kids under five each a year globally - more than Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and malaria combined.

Pneumonia is the biggest killer of children under five, claiming more then two million lives annually or about 20 per cent of all child deaths. AIDS, in contrast, accounts for about two per cent.

If identified early, pneumonia can be treated with inexpensive antibiotics. Yet UNICEF and the World Health Organisation (WHO) estimate less than 20 percent of those sickened receive the drugs.

A vaccine has been available since 2000 but has not yet reached many children in developing countries. The Global Alliance on Vaccine Initiative (GAVI) hopes to introduce it to 42 countries by 2015.

Diarrheal diseases, such as cholera and rotavirus, kill 1.5 million kids each year, most under-two years old. The children die from dehydration, weakened immune systems and malnutrition. Often they get sick from drinking dirty water.

The worst cholera outbreak to hit Africa in 15 years killed more than 4,000 people in Zimbabwe last year. The country recently reported new cases of the waterborne disease, and more are expected as the rainy season peaks and sewers overflow.

Rotavirus, a highly contagious disease spread through contaminated hands and surfaces, is the top cause of severe diarrhea, accounting for more than a half million child deaths a year.

A vaccine routinely given to children in the United States and Europe is expected to reach 44 poorer countries including Nigeria by 2015 through the GAVI Alliance. Nigeria plans to introduce the vaccine against pneumonia in the national immunisation programme next year.

Meanwhile, researchers at the Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, have determined the effects of aqueous extracts of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum and calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa on intestinal transit in experimental rats.

M. O. Owulade, K. I. Eghianruwa, and F. O. Daramola in the study published in African Journal of Biomedical Research Vol. 7 wrote: "The leaves of Ocimum

gratissimum were oven dried and then pulverised. The dried calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were also pulverised. 10 per cent extracts of both powders were made and administered orally to rats at varying doses. Test rats were given the 10 per cent extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Hibiscus sabdariffa at 0.5/100g, 1ml/100g, 2ml/100g body weight. Control rats received saline instead of extracts.

"After 30 minutes, each animal was then given 1.5 ml of a dye solution orally. One hour after administering the dye each rat was sacrificed and the intestine carefully

dissected out. The length of the intestine and the transit point of the orally administered dye were then measured. The transit point was calculated as a percentage of the total length of the intestine.

"The extracts of both Ocimum gratissimum and Hibiscus sabdariffa caused a reduction in the transit points of the dye. The extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa was more effective. The reduction in transit point, and hence the increase in transit time by both extracts indicates that the plants could be useful at appropriate doses in the control of diarrhea. Hibiscus sabdariffa would be more effective in this regard."

Analysis of the results showed that the distance transversed by the dye from the pyloric junction was calculated as percentages of the entire length of the intestines. This was regarded as the percentage transit point of the dye at each dose of an extract. The means and standard errors of the means (SEM) of these percentages were calculated for each group.

Data from the control group were regarded as zero administration of the extracts. These data were then fed into the computer using the computer software, Microsoft excel (Microsoft Incorporation, USA) to obtain graphic representations. The levels of significance between the transit points of each dose were determined using Students' t-test.

Extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa caused dose dependent reduction in the percentage transit point of the dye. The reduction of percentage transit point by extract of Ocimun gratissimum was not dose-dependent. However, the reduction was significant when compared to the percentage transit in normal rats. Zobo, the aqueous extract of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa caused a reduction in the percentage transit point indicating a reduction in intestinal motility, and increased transit time.

The mechanism by which Hibiscus sabdariffa caused this action cannot be ascertained from this study but studies carried out by other workers on the phytochemical constituents of the plant indicate the presence of pectin, a known protectant and adsorbent.

Pectin dissolves in water to form viscous colloidal solution and was once used widely in the treatment of diarrhea. Researchers have also observed that the petal extract of the plant produced relaxation of isolated rat aorta. Relaxation of the intestinal smooth muscle would cause increased transit time. At appropriate dose, zobo could therefore become a constipating agent. It could also be effective in reducing the intensity of diarrhea.

Although, a reduction in motility was evident between control and test rats, the leaf extract of Ocimun gratissimum did not produce a dose-dependent effect. The leaf extract of Ocimun gratissimum is therefore not as effective an inhibitor of intestinal motility as Hibiscus sabdariffa.

The effectiveness of the leaf extract of Ocimun gratissimum in controlling gastrointestinal upset may not be due to a direct relaxation of the intestinal smooth muscle. A fraction of the crude extract has been shown to contract guinea pig ileum and rat colon. This action cannot be associated with reduced intestinal motility. The antispasmodic action of thymol contained in the aromatic volatile oil obtained from the leaves of Ocimun gratissimum could be associated with reduced intestinal motility. This action in conjunction with antibacterial property of the plant may be responsible for its observed action in diarrhea.

In another study published in The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine, Nigerian researchers have confirmed the efficacy of ginger (Zingiber officinale), garlic (Allium sativum) and both plants combined in rats infected with Kleibsiella pneumoniae (causative organism of pneumonia).

The study is titled "Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) on rats infected with Kleibsiella pneumoniae."

According to the study, the rats were treated with the plant extracts after symptoms of pneumonia infection were noticed in all the groups; the treatment lasted for seven consecutive days. The average weight gains in the post-administration were: in garlic, ginger, mixture (males), mixture (females) and control were 27.0g,-36.2g, 6.0g, 38.8g and 78.8g respectively. There was a significant reduction in Packed Cell Volume (PCV) in all the groups except in females injected with mixture compared with the control.

Also, garlic treated rats showed a significant decrease in total White Blood Cell (WBC) and neutrophils but an increase in lymphocytes as against to what was observed in the other groups.

Neutrophil granulocytes, generally referred to as neutrophils, are the most abundant type of white blood cells in mammals and form an essential part of the innate immune system.

All the rats in ginger group died with symptoms of pneumonia before seven days after the administration while two rats died in males treated with mixture. No death was however recorded in the other groups.

The researchers include: Adeoti Olatunde Micheal, Oladejo Deborah Ajoke, Azeez Gafar Olatunji, and Adeoti Oluwole of Polytechnic Ibadan; and Olaniyan Mathew Folaranmi and Adeleke Adewumi of Baptist Medical Centre.

The researchers wrote: "The virtues of garlic as medicinal plant are known to most cultures of the world, this study further confirmed the earlier works on the efficacy of garlic as therapeutic agent against various ailments. The antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger against some enteric bacteria was reported; however ginger seems to be ineffective against Kleibsiella pneumoniae as observed in our study.

"Ginger was reportedly found to cause decrease in body weight, this is however consistent with our study because the highest average weight loss observed in rats treated with ginger only. The exact mechanism of action of both ginger and garlic as proffered therapeutic agents is poorly understood but combining the two in our study could be beneficial; as the relationship seem to be a synergistic one in ameliorating the efficacy of ginger only against Kleibsiella infection as observed in our study in female rats treated with the mixture of garlic and ginger.

"Whether both garlic and ginger can be used as prophylaxis is left for further studies but both plants have been implicated to have prophylactic uses in both human and rats. Very recently, the root of ginger has been used to stimulate blood flow to the extremities in cases of blood circulation, the hematological parameters monitored in this study sharply disagreed with this.

"Also, our work failed to concur with the work of Iranloye, 2002 who observed a significant increase in total white blood cells count, neutrophils, monocytes and the lymphocytes in garlic fed rats when compared with the control. Monocyte is a type of white blood cell, part of the human body's immune system. Leucocytes are know to increase sharply in the face of infection, as the first line of defence of the body; the factor that led to the reduction in PCV, WBC counts, and neutrophils noticed in our study in the rats treated with garlic only, still remain unclear."

Lymphocytes is a small white blood cell (leukocyte) that plays a large role in defending the body against disease. Leukocytes, or White Blood Cells (WBCs), (also spelled "leucocytes"), are cells of the immune system defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials.

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ZOBO DRINK MAY PROVIDE CURE FOR DIARRHOEA, PNEUMONIA
« on: December 09, 2009, 07:22:43 AM »

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Offline beibee

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Re: ZOBO DRINK MAY PROVIDE CURE FOR DIARRHOEA, PNEUMONIA
« Reply #1 on: December 09, 2009, 08:27:19 AM »
this is good information
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Re: ZOBO DRINK MAY PROVIDE CURE FOR DIARRHOEA, PNEUMONIA
« Reply #1 on: December 09, 2009, 08:27:19 AM »

 

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